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The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series o

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The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series o

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The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check's authenticity, which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light.

A. which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view
B. which include reminders for watching the endorsement, to compare signatures and view
C. by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and viewing
D. including reminders to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures and viewing
E. including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view

OA: E

Citation: Mitch Hunt's Response

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Last edited by richachampion on Sat Sep 17, 2016 8:14 pm; edited 1 time in total

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pks02 wrote:
Hi Mitch,

Whats wrong with option C ?

",by including.." is explaining how the companies will help. I see nothing wrong with it
Generally, a COMMA + VERBing modifier serves to modify the nearest preceding action and the agent of this action.
C: instructions that...will help merchants confirm a check's authenticity, by including reminders to watch the endorsement.
.Here, COMMA + by including seems to modify merchants confirm -- the nearest preceding action and agent of this action -- implying that MERCHANTS will be INCLUDING reminders when confirm authenticity.
Not the intended meaning.
The intended meaning is that merchants will be GIVEN reminders.
Eliminate C.

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Mr. Hunt,

I have provided a citation above where you said that
Many dictionaries define including as a PREPOSITION.
On the GMAT, it is probably best to consider COMMA + INCLUDING a NOUN modifier that serves to introduce examples of the nearest preceding plural noun.
Do not worry about whether COMMA + including serves to refer to a preceding subject. Such thinking will only lead to confusion.


Dont you think so that with the above given logic including is modifying merchants, which is a closest plural noun.

Meaningfully it is introducing examples for instructions, but by the logic(Citation: Mitch Hunt's Response) that you have given it seems to introduce examples for merchants and that is a nonsensical meaning to convey.

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The referent for COMMA + including cannot be a general category.
Generally, COMMA + including must serve to refer to a SPECIFIC SET.

Official examples:
A study urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits.
Here, the referent for COMMA + including is a specific set of remedies (the phrase in blue).
The new image of Stone Age people has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears.
Here, the referent for COMMA + including is a specific set of tools (the phrase in blue).

richachampion wrote:
Mr. Hunt,

I have provided a citation above where you said that
Many dictionaries define including as a PREPOSITION.
On the GMAT, it is probably best to consider COMMA + INCLUDING a NOUN modifier that serves to introduce examples of the nearest preceding plural noun.
Do not worry about whether COMMA + including serves to refer to a preceding subject. Such thinking will only lead to confusion.


Dont you think so that with the above given logic including is modifying merchants, which is a closest plural noun.

Meaningfully it is introducing examples for instructions, but by the logic(Citation: Mitch Hunt's Response) that you have given it seems to introduce examples for merchants and that is a nonsensical meaning to convey.
The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check's authenticity, including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light.
Here, the referent for COMMA + including cannot be merchants (a general category).
The only viable referent for COMMA + including is the portion in blue (a specific set of instructions).

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check's authenticity, including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light.
Here, the referent for COMMA + including cannot be merchants (a general category).
The only viable referent for COMMA + including is the portion in blue (a specific set of instructions).
Wow Mr. Hunt,

You are a real Guru.

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@richachampion: is it an Official SC ? What's the source ?

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RBBmba@2014 wrote:
@richachampion: is it an Official SC ? What's the source ?
@RBBmba@2014 They are from some official source that i collected is MS file while solving questions from OG's Official Guide, Exam pack and question pack, but I do not know the exact source, but 100% its official question.

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gmatguru,
what are the errors in D ?

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ngk4mba3236 wrote:
gmatguru,
what are the errors in D ?
D: printed instructions, including reminders to watch, comparing signatures
Here, the function of comparing is unclear.

Option 1: reminders to watch, reminders comparing signatures
This option implies that the REMINDERS are comparing signatures -- a nonsensical meaning.
In this option, an additional error is that to watch and comparing lack parallelism.

Option 2: printed instructions...including comparing signatures
This option implies that comparing signatures is an instruction -- not the intended meaning.
The intended meaning is that one of the instructions is a REMINDER to compare signatures.
In this option, an additional error is that the apparent list of instructions -- reminders to watch, comparing signatures, viewing the watermark -- is not parallel.

Since neither option is viable, eliminate D.

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gmatguru,
apart from what you mentioned above, can the following be another error in D ?

noun "reminders" is NOT parallel to simple gerund phrases "comparing signatures" and "viewing" because a noun can be parallel ONLY either with other nouns or with "complex gerund phrases" (such as the + gerund + of structure).

right ?

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ngk4mba3236 wrote:
gmatguru,
apart from what you mentioned above, can the following be another error in D ?

noun "reminders" is NOT parallel to simple gerund phrases "comparing signatures" and "viewing" because a noun can be parallel ONLY either with other nouns or with "complex gerund phrases" (such as the + gerund + of structure).

right ?
In most cases, this line of reasoning will hold true.
But I would exercise caution.
Consider the following OA:
Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate genetic predispositions toward certain diseases.
In the non-underlined portion, eating rich foods (VERBing + DIRECT OBJECT) is considered parallel with alcohol consumption (NOUN phrase).
For this reason, I would eliminate an answer choice that exhibits this sort of parallelism only if an alternate choice offers better parallelism and is free of errors.

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Hi Mitch,

Whats wrong with option C ?

",by including.." is explaining how the companies will help. I see nothing wrong with it

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
ngk4mba3236 wrote:
gmatguru,
apart from what you mentioned above, can the following be another error in D ?

noun "reminders" is NOT parallel to simple gerund phrases "comparing signatures" and "viewing" because a noun can be parallel ONLY either with other nouns or with "complex gerund phrases" (such as the + gerund + of structure).

right ?
In most cases, this line of reasoning will hold true.
But I would exercise caution.
Consider the following OA:
Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate genetic predispositions toward certain diseases.
In the non-underlined portion, eating rich foods (VERBing + DIRECT OBJECT) is considered parallel with alcohol consumption (NOUN phrase).
For this reason, I would eliminate an answer choice that exhibits this sort of parallelism only if an alternate choice offers better parallelism and is free of errors.
Hi GmatGuru,

I am struggling with this 'Semtence correction' question. Will you please explain all the options and explain why incorrect options are wrong and the correct answer is right ?
Thanks in advance,

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
ngk4mba3236 wrote:
gmatguru,
what are the errors in D ?
D: printed instructions, including reminders to watch, comparing signatures
Here, the function of comparing is unclear.

Option 1: reminders to watch, reminders comparing signatures
This option implies that the REMINDERS are comparing signatures -- a nonsensical meaning.
In this option, an additional error is that to watch and comparing lack parallelism.

Option 2: printed instructions...including comparing signatures
This option implies that comparing signatures is an instruction -- not the intended meaning.
The intended meaning is that one of the instructions is a REMINDER to compare signatures.
In this option, an additional error is that the apparent list of instructions -- reminders to watch, comparing signatures, viewing the watermark -- is not parallel.

Since neither option is viable, eliminate D.
Dear GMATGuru

1- Can you clarify option 2 above? In OA it is not mentioned that 'one of the instructions is a REMINDER to compare signatures'. In OA , instructions will help ...check...., compare..., and view. So I do not understand how got that meaning in option 2.

2- In the '....while holding..........' there is an ellipsis. I recall you sate once that the subject of the action should be the subject of the main clause. However, the only logic subject who can 'hold the check to the light' is the merchants but it is not the subject of the main clause.

'....while [ the merchents are] holding..........'

can you help please?

Thanks in advance

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Mo2men wrote:
1- Can you clarify option 2 above? In OA it is not mentioned that 'one of the instructions is a REMINDER to compare signatures'. In OA , instructions will help ...check...., compare..., and view. So I do not understand how got that meaning in option 2.
In the OA, the list of instructions includes THREE TYPES OF REMINDERS:
a reminder TO WATCH
a reminder TO COMPARE
a reminder TO VIEW

In option 2, the list of instructions seems to include the following three nouns:
REMINDERS
COMPARING
VIEWING

Thus, the intended meaning is not conveyed in Option 2.

Quote:
2- In the '....while holding..........' there is an ellipsis. I recall you sate once that the subject of the action should be the subject of the main clause. However, the only logic subject who can 'hold the check to the light' is the merchants but it is not the subject of the main clause.

'....while [ the merchents are] holding..........'
Sometimes the agent for an infinitive will be an UNSPECIFIED PERSON.

An official example:
The best way to extract the flavor from saffron threads is to soak them in liquid after pounding them.
Here, the infinitives in blue lack an explicit agent.
As a result, the following is implied:
The best way [for a person] to extract the flavor from saffron threads is [for the person] to soak them in liquid after pounding them.
The conveyed meaning is that the implied PERSON in brackets is performing all three actions (to extract, to soak, pounding).

In the SC at top. the OA implies the following:
reminders [for a person] to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while [the person is] holding the check to the light
Here, the agent of holding is the implied person in brackets.

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