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## OG13-Q70 The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre

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prabsahi Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
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#### OG13-Q70 The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre

Mon Sep 19, 2016 3:00 am

00:00

A

B

C

D

E

# Global Stats

Difficult

The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at
Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for
centrally administered complex societies in northern
regions of the Middle East that were arising
simultaneously with but independently of the more
celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in
what is now southern Iraq.
(A) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell
Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence
for centrally administered complex societies in
northern regions of the Middle East that were
arising simultaneously with but
(B) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell
Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that
northern regions of the Middle East were arising
simultaneously with but also
(C) having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell
Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence
that centrally administered complex societies in
northern regions of the Middle East were arising
simultaneously but
(D) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria,
yields strong evidence of centrally administered
complex societies in northern regions of the
Middle East arising simultaneously but also
(E) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria,
have yielded strong evidence that centrally
regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously
with but

My doubt:

Option A

I understand that ..that parallelism is unnecsessary as well as wrong here
that---were cut..that were arising simuletaneously
Also it is unnecessary to use --that were cut when we can simply use CUT.

Apart from this please clarify isn't the placement of second that incorrect here.
The second that is placed --centrally administered complex societies in
northern regions of the Middle East [b]that were
arising simultaneously with but[b]

Isn't the second 'that' supposed to refer to the complex societies but is actually referring to Northern regions of middle east.

Thanks

_________________
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### GMAT/MBA Expert

ceilidh.erickson GMAT Instructor
Joined
04 Dec 2012
Posted:
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Sat Sep 24, 2016 5:52 pm
Your confusion is a very common and understandable one!

Modifying dependent clauses (often beginning with THAT or WHICH) are generally understood to modify the noun directly before them.

Correct: The jacket, which I bought yesterday, is blue.
Incorrect: The jacket is blue, which I bought yesterday.

However, there is an exception to this rule (as there is with just about every rule in the English language, it seems!). A dependent clause is allowed to "hop" over a short essential modifier (usually a prepositional phrase) to get to the noun it's modifying.

Consider:

Flooding in the Moose River valley, which was once rare, has become a much more common occurrence in recent years.

If we moved the WHICH clause to be next to FLOODING, the sentence would sound very awkward:

Flooding, which was once rare, in the Moose River valley, has become a much more common occurrence in recent years.

So, in the sentence you cited,
centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but...
it would have been acceptable to use THAT to modify SOCIETIES. It's a bit clunky, since we'd be "hopping" over two prepositional phrases to get to the noun, but it wouldn't technically be wrong. It's likely that a right answer on the GMAT would switch to something more concise / less clunky (although not always).

There are two primary issues in this sentence are actually SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT and MEANING.

Any sentence that separates the main subject and verb with a long modifier in the middle is likely testing SUBJECT/VERB agreement.
The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence...

The original sentence has agreement, but B and D use "yields." Eliminate these.

In C, "having been cut" suggests a more complicated time relationship than is necessary. Never use a complicated verbal construction when a simple one will do!

Between A and E, the primary difference is not "that were cut" vs "cut." It's the expression EVIDENCE FOR vs. EVIDENCE THAT. We use "evidence FOR" when giving evidence to someone, or ascribing ownership. "That letter will be used as evidence for the prosecution."

"Evidence THAT" conveys reasoning indicating that something HAPPENED. "We found evidence that the prosecution withheld crucial information from the defense."

Clearly in this sentence, we want to use evidence THAT these societies did something; we're not giving evidence TO the societies.

Hope this helps!

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### GMAT/MBA Expert

ceilidh.erickson GMAT Instructor
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Sat Sep 24, 2016 5:57 pm

_________________

Ceilidh Erickson
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EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education

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