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OG 2016 RC Passage #1 | Question #3

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richachampion Legendary Member
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OG 2016 RC Passage #1 | Question #3

Post Fri Oct 07, 2016 12:59 pm
widespread among species of small fish, both theories assume that schooling offers the advantage of some protection from predators.
Proponents of theory A dispute the assumption that a school of thousands of fish is highly visible. Experiments have shown that any fish can be seen, even in very clear water, only within a sphere of 200 meters in diameter. When fish are in a compact group, the spheres of visibility overlap. Thus the chance of a predator finding the school is only slightly greater than the chance of the predator finding a single fish swimming alone. Schooling is advantageous to the individual fish because a predator's chance of finding any particular fish swimming in the school is much smaller than its chance of finding at least one of the same group of fish if the fish were dispersed throughout an area.

However, critics of theory A point out that some fish form schools even in areas where predators are abundant and thus little possibility of escaping detection exists. They argue that the school continues to be of value to its members even after detection. They advocate theory B, the "confusion effect," which can be explained in two different ways. Sometimes, proponents argue, predators simply cannot decide which fish to attack. This indecision supposedly results from a predator's preference for striking prey that is distinct from the rest of the school in appearance. In many schools the fish are almost identical in appearance, making it difficult for a predator to select one. The second explanation for the "confusion effect" has to do with the sensory confusion caused by a large number of prey moving around the predator. Even if the predator makes the decision to attack a particular fish, the movement of other prey in the school can be distracting. The predator's difficulty can be compared to that of a tennis player trying to hit a tennis ball when two are approaching
simultaneously.

3. According to one explanation of the "confusion effect," a fish that swims in a school will have greater advantages for survival if it
(A) tends to be visible for no more than 200 meters
(B) stays near either the front or the rear of a school
(C) is part of a small school rather than a large school
(D) is very similar in appearance to the other fish in the school
(E) is medium-sized

OA: D

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mahim139 Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts Default Avatar
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Post Sat Oct 08, 2016 12:34 pm
I think this line here helps to get the right answer.

In many schools the fish are almost identical in appearance, making it difficult for a predator to select one.

+1 D

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fiza gupta Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Post Sat Oct 08, 2016 4:02 am
They advocate theory B, the "confusion effect," which can be explained in two different ways. Sometimes, proponents argue, predators simply cannot decide which fish to attack. This indecision supposedly results from a predator's preference for striking prey that is distinct from the rest of the school in appearance. In many schools the fish are almost identical in appearance, making it difficult for a predator to select one. The second explanation for the "confusion effect" has to do with the sensory confusion caused by a large number of prey moving around the predator. Even if the predator makes the decision to attack a particular fish, the movement of other prey in the school can be distracting. The predator's difficulty can be compared to that of a tennis player trying to hit a tennis ball when two are approaching
simultaneously
.


3. According to one explanation of the "confusion effect," a fish that swims in a school will have greater advantages for survival if it

(A) tends to be visible for no more than 200 meters
this topic is mentioned in first paragraph when theory A dispute the assumption that a school of thousands of fish is highly visible

(B) stays near either the front or the rear of a school
OFS

(C) is part of a small school rather than a large school
OFS
theory B is not describing anything about sizes of school

(D) is very similar in appearance to the other fish in the school
Yes

(E) is medium-sized
Size not discussed
OFS

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