• Magoosh
Study with Magoosh GMAT prep

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• Get 300+ Practice Questions
25 Video lessons and 6 Webinars for FREE

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• 5 Day FREE Trial
Study Smarter, Not Harder

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• 1 Hour Free
BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• Award-winning private GMAT tutoring
Register now and save up to \$200

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• 5-Day Free Trial
5-day free, full-access trial TTP Quant

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• Reach higher with Artificial Intelligence. Guaranteed
Now free for 30 days

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• Free Trial & Practice Exam
BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• Free Veritas GMAT Class
Experience Lesson 1 Live Free

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• Free Practice Test & Review
How would you score if you took the GMAT

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

## OG'17

tagged by: ceilidh.erickson

This topic has 7 expert replies and 6 member replies
fiza gupta Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
Joined
31 Jul 2016
Posted:
216 messages
Followed by:
6 members
Upvotes:
31
Target GMAT Score:
750+

#### OG'17

Tue Nov 15, 2016 6:01 am
In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well
B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well
C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well
E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

OA:A

_________________
Fiza Gupta

noiceman Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts
Joined
07 Mar 2017
Posted:
11 messages
Mon May 29, 2017 7:45 am
ceilidh.erickson wrote:
noiceman wrote:
Hi Ceilidh,
Thank you for the explanation.
Could you elaborate "we shouldn't begin a dependent clause ("because") after an opening prepositional phrase", please?
It will help a lot.
Prepositional phrases act as modifiers (sometimes modifying nouns, sometimes modifying actions). As a general rule, a prepositional phrase at the beginning of a sentence should modify what comes right after it:

In the school play, I had the starring role.

If additional modifying information is added with a dependent clause, it should not be "stacked" in front of the prepositional phrase:

Incorrect: In the school play, because the other children had stage fright, I had the starring role.

Correct: In the school play, I had the starring role, because the other children had stage fright.
or...
Correct: Because the other children had stage fright, I had the starring role in the school play,

Does that answer your question?
Yes. Thank you for the kind help!

### GMAT/MBA Expert

ceilidh.erickson GMAT Instructor
Joined
04 Dec 2012
Posted:
1778 messages
Followed by:
228 members
Upvotes:
1443
Mon May 29, 2017 7:38 am
noiceman wrote:
Hi Ceilidh,
Thank you for the explanation.
Could you elaborate "we shouldn't begin a dependent clause ("because") after an opening prepositional phrase", please?
It will help a lot.
Prepositional phrases act as modifiers (sometimes modifying nouns, sometimes modifying actions). As a general rule, a prepositional phrase at the beginning of a sentence should modify what comes right after it:

In the school play, I had the starring role.

If additional modifying information is added with a dependent clause, it should not be "stacked" in front of the prepositional phrase:

Incorrect: In the school play, because the other children had stage fright, I had the starring role.

Correct: In the school play, I had the starring role, because the other children had stage fright.
or...
Correct: Because the other children had stage fright, I had the starring role in the school play,

Does that answer your question?

_________________

Ceilidh Erickson
Manhattan Prep GMAT & GRE instructor
EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
Harvard Graduate School of Education

Manhattan Prep instructors all have 99th+ percentile scores and expert teaching experience.
Sign up for a FREE TRIAL, and learn why we have the highest ratings in the GMAT industry!

Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week.

### GMAT/MBA Expert

ceilidh.erickson GMAT Instructor
Joined
04 Dec 2012
Posted:
1778 messages
Followed by:
228 members
Upvotes:
1443
Tue Nov 15, 2016 4:13 pm
This question is primarily testing SENTENCE STRUCTURE (clauses) and LOGICAL MEANING.

In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well

Correct!
- we have an independent clause on either side of the semicolon. (Remember that whenever we see a SEMICOLON, we must have a full independent clause on either side).
- all modifiers logically modify the intended thing

B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well
- "so that" implies intentionality. Are the trees doing this on purpose? Can trees be said to do anything on purpose?
- idiomatically, we cannot say "from where." "Where" cannot be an object of a preposition. We can only say "from which" (for anything non-human) or "from whom" (human).

C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
- the correct verb is "a thick layer [of needles] protects..."

D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well
- If we start the sentence with a prepositional phrase ("In some types..."), we should follow it with the independent clause, not a dependent clause ("since...")
- "consequently" is redundant if we've already said "since", and "therefore" is doubly redundant

E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result
- same as in D - we shouldn't begin a dependent clause ("because") after an opening prepositional phrase.
- we can't use "where" to modify "buds." "where" should only refer to a physical / geographical location.

The answer is A.

_________________

Ceilidh Erickson
Manhattan Prep GMAT & GRE instructor
EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
Harvard Graduate School of Education

Manhattan Prep instructors all have 99th+ percentile scores and expert teaching experience.
Sign up for a FREE TRIAL, and learn why we have the highest ratings in the GMAT industry!

Last edited by ceilidh.erickson on Wed Nov 16, 2016 1:10 pm; edited 1 time in total

Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week.
GMATsid2016 Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
Joined
13 Nov 2016
Posted:
39 messages
Upvotes:
1
Wed Nov 16, 2016 9:30 am
Quote:
C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
- the correct verb is "a thick layer [of needles] protects..."
Hello Ceilidh ,

Can you please explain more above reason to eliminate this option?

Also please advise what does THEY refer to in OA?

Thanks,

Sid

### GMAT/MBA Expert

ceilidh.erickson GMAT Instructor
Joined
04 Dec 2012
Posted:
1778 messages
Followed by:
228 members
Upvotes:
1443
Wed Nov 16, 2016 1:11 pm
GMATsid2016 wrote:
Hello Ceilidh ,

Can you please explain more above reason to eliminate this option?

Also please advise what does THEY refer to in OA?

Thanks,

Sid
Option C is wrong because it violates SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT. The subject is the singular "layer" (not "needles," which is part of a modifying prepositional phrase), so the verb should be "protects," not "protect."

I agree that determining the antecedent of the pronoun "THEY" is tricky in this problem. Pronouns are most likely to replace subjects or objects of verbs, and are less likely to replace nouns in modifying phrases or clauses. Thus, we can assume that "they" probably refers to "buds." There is a little bit of ambiguity in whether "they" might be referring to "types of pine tree" rather than "buds," but the issue is minor; it would not cause a meaning difference in this problem. I've updated my post accordingly.

The pronoun ambiguity issue is a tricky one on the GMAT: sometimes we're required to fix ambiguity issues (usually if there are also meaning issues), and sometimes a right answer will contain a seemingly ambiguous pronoun. The best thing to do is to ignore this issue unless you're sure you've dealt with all other grammar and meaning issues.

_________________

Ceilidh Erickson
Manhattan Prep GMAT & GRE instructor
EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
Harvard Graduate School of Education

Manhattan Prep instructors all have 99th+ percentile scores and expert teaching experience.
Sign up for a FREE TRIAL, and learn why we have the highest ratings in the GMAT industry!

Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week.

### GMAT/MBA Expert

ceilidh.erickson GMAT Instructor
Joined
04 Dec 2012
Posted:
1778 messages
Followed by:
228 members
Upvotes:
1443
Wed Nov 16, 2016 1:19 pm

_________________

Ceilidh Erickson
Manhattan Prep GMAT & GRE instructor
EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
Harvard Graduate School of Education

Manhattan Prep instructors all have 99th+ percentile scores and expert teaching experience.
Sign up for a FREE TRIAL, and learn why we have the highest ratings in the GMAT industry!

Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week.
akara2500 Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts
Joined
12 Jun 2015
Posted:
4 messages
Fri Apr 14, 2017 8:08 pm
Could you please more clarify, as far as I see, for this case "from which" is not the modifier for buds, since it has to be protect the bud from sth (protect sth from sth). So it's ok with protect the buds from where new growth proceeds. "where new growth proceeds" is just sth to protect the buds from

akara2500 Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts
Joined
12 Jun 2015
Posted:
4 messages
Fri Apr 14, 2017 8:08 pm
Could you please more clarify, as far as I see, for this case "from which" is not the modifier for buds, since it has to be protect the bud from sth (protect sth from sth). So it's ok with protect the buds from where new growth proceeds. "where new growth proceeds" is just sth to protect the buds from

### GMAT/MBA Expert

ceilidh.erickson GMAT Instructor
Joined
04 Dec 2012
Posted:
1778 messages
Followed by:
228 members
Upvotes:
1443
Mon Apr 24, 2017 7:53 am
akara2500 wrote:
Could you please more clarify, as far as I see, for this case "from which" is not the modifier for buds, since it has to be protect the bud from sth (protect sth from sth). So it's ok with protect the buds from where new growth proceeds. "where new growth proceeds" is just sth to protect the buds from
The "from which" clause does modify "buds":
- needles protect buds
- new growth proceeds from buds

So the sentence needs to convey:
... a thick layer of needles protects the buds (the things that new growth proceeds from)...
We often end phrases in prepositions colloquially, but the GMAT will prefer the more proper PREPOSITION + RELATIVE PRONOUN.

"Where" should only refer to a geographical place: a city, a country, a building, etc. Something with a fixed location. "Buds" are objects found on muliples trees in multiple locations, so it's better to use "which."

For whatever reason, "from where" is never used in English. In old-fashioned usage, you might see "from whence." But in modern English, you would see "from which" even when referring to geographical places: New Orleans, a city from which numerous jazz artists emerged...

I hope this answers your question!

_________________

Ceilidh Erickson
Manhattan Prep GMAT & GRE instructor
EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
Harvard Graduate School of Education

Manhattan Prep instructors all have 99th+ percentile scores and expert teaching experience.
Sign up for a FREE TRIAL, and learn why we have the highest ratings in the GMAT industry!

Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week.
noiceman Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts
Joined
07 Mar 2017
Posted:
11 messages
Sun May 28, 2017 11:06 pm
ceilidh.erickson wrote:
This question is primarily testing SENTENCE STRUCTURE (clauses) and LOGICAL MEANING.

In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well

Correct!
- we have an independent clause on either side of the semicolon. (Remember that whenever we see a SEMICOLON, we must have a full independent clause on either side).
- all modifiers logically modify the intended thing

B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well
- "so that" implies intentionality. Are the trees doing this on purpose? Can trees be said to do anything on purpose?
- idiomatically, we cannot say "from where." "Where" cannot be an object of a preposition. We can only say "from which" (for anything non-human) or "from whom" (human).

C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
- the correct verb is "a thick layer [of needles] protects..."

D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well
- If we start the sentence with a prepositional phrase ("In some types..."), we should follow it with the independent clause, not a dependent clause ("since...")
- "consequently" is redundant if we've already said "since", and "therefore" is doubly redundant

E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result
- same as in D - we shouldn't begin a dependent clause ("because") after an opening prepositional phrase.
- we can't use "where" to modify "buds." "where" should only refer to a physical / geographical location.

The answer is A.
Hi Ceilidh,
Thank you for the explanation.
Could you elaborate "we shouldn't begin a dependent clause ("because") after an opening prepositional phrase", please?
It will help a lot.

### GMAT/MBA Expert

ceilidh.erickson GMAT Instructor
Joined
04 Dec 2012
Posted:
1778 messages
Followed by:
228 members
Upvotes:
1443
Mon May 29, 2017 7:58 am
My pleasure!

_________________

Ceilidh Erickson
Manhattan Prep GMAT & GRE instructor
EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
Harvard Graduate School of Education

Manhattan Prep instructors all have 99th+ percentile scores and expert teaching experience.
Sign up for a FREE TRIAL, and learn why we have the highest ratings in the GMAT industry!

Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week.
Mo2men Legendary Member
Joined
25 Sep 2015
Posted:
572 messages
Followed by:
5 members
Upvotes:
14
Mon Dec 25, 2017 5:58 am
fiza gupta wrote:
In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well
B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well
C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well
E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

OA:A
In choice B:

1- Is the construction 'a a thick needle layer' correct? I think it is not. It should be 'a thick-needle layer', is it correct?

2- Is the usage of 'so that'? does it used for 'clause of consequences?

Thanks

### GMAT/MBA Expert

GMATGuruNY GMAT Instructor
Joined
25 May 2010
Posted:
14030 messages
Followed by:
1812 members
Upvotes:
13060
GMAT Score:
790
Tue Dec 26, 2017 6:28 pm
Mo2men wrote:
In choice B:

1- Is the construction 'a a thick needle layer' correct?
B: a thick needle layer
Here, it is unclear whether thick serves to modify needle or layer.
Thus, the construction is not viable.

Quote:
It should be 'a thick-needle layer', is it correct?
The hyphenated phrase in red implies a layer of THICK NEEDLES.
The OA, however, discusses a THICK LAYER of needles.
Thus, the hyphenated phrase in red does not convey the intended meaning.

Quote:
2- Is the usage of 'so that'? does it used for 'clause of consequences?
This assessment sounds reasonable.
SC270 in the 2018 Verbal Review includes a similar usage of so that:
In many of the worldâ€™s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern.

_________________
Mitch Hunt
GMAT Private Tutor
GMATGuruNY@gmail.com
If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon.
Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance.
For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com.

Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now.

### Best Conversation Starters

1 lheiannie07 80 topics
2 LUANDATO 59 topics
3 ardz24 52 topics
4 AAPL 45 topics
5 Roland2rule 43 topics
See More Top Beat The GMAT Members...

### Most Active Experts

1 Rich.C@EMPOWERgma...

EMPOWERgmat

133 posts
2 Brent@GMATPrepNow

GMAT Prep Now Teacher

131 posts
3 GMATGuruNY

The Princeton Review Teacher

130 posts
4 Scott@TargetTestPrep

Target Test Prep

118 posts
5 Jeff@TargetTestPrep

Target Test Prep

114 posts
See More Top Beat The GMAT Experts