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Navigators have known for thousands of years that

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Navigators have known for thousands of years that

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Navigators have known for thousands of years that the ocean has variable currents, but it is only in the last half century that a reasonably clear picture has emerged of the patterns and causes of ocean currents.

A.a reasonably clear picture has emerged of the patterns and causes of ocean currents.
B. a reasonably clear picture of the patterns of ocean currents and their causes have emerged.
C. a reasonably clear picture emerged of ocean currents, their patterns and the causes of them
D. there have emerged a reasonably clear picture of the patterns of ocean currents and what caused them.
E. there had emerged a reasonably clear picture of the patterns of ocean currents and their causes.

OA:A

Source:GMATPrep EP2

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NandishSS wrote:
Navigators have known for thousands of years that the ocean has variable currents, but it is only in the last half century that a reasonably clear picture has emerged of the patterns and causes of ocean currents.

A. a reasonably clear picture has emerged of the patterns and causes of ocean currents.
B. a reasonably clear picture of the patterns of ocean currents and their causes have emerged.
C. a reasonably clear picture emerged of ocean currents, their patterns and the causes of them
D. there have emerged a reasonably clear picture of the patterns of ocean currents and what caused them.
E. there had emerged a reasonably clear picture of the patterns of ocean currents and their causes.
In B and D, picture (singular) does not agree with have emerged (plural).
Eliminate B and D.

C: Navigators have known for thousands of years that the ocean has variable currents, but it is only in the last half century that a reasonably clear picture emerged of ocean currents.
Here, the meaning conveyed by the red portion (a picture of ocean currents emerged ONLY IN THE LAST HALF CENTURY) contradicts the meaning conveyed by the blue portion (navigators have known FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS that the ocean has variable currents).
Eliminate C.

In E, it is not crystal clear whether their serves to refer to patterns or to currents.
Since A avoids this ambiguity and is free of errors, eliminate E.
Also, there is no justification for the usage of the past perfect (had emerged).

The correct answer is A.

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Here, “a clear picture” is the subject which is Singular. So, we need to use Singular verb “has” instead of plural verb “have”. Use of “have” violates S-V agreement. Hence, Choice B and D are out. Answer choice C and E are out because of the use of wrong tense. The sentence is in present perfect tense while Choice E uses past perfect and Choice C uses simple past tense. Hence, A is the answer.

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