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good farming (OG13 71)

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good farming (OG13 71)

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Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in
(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
(c) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured
(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for

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alex.gellatly wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in
(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
(c) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured
(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for
There is a redundancy in the written sentence (and also in D): 'combination' and 'both'. We need to use either one of them, not both at the same time.

A. endure in at least 6000 years indicates future. But the fact is that tranditions have endured for 6000 years.

B. Correct.

C/D/E - Incorrectly use 'of growing' meaning 'combination of X and of Y'. (correct usage: Combination of X and Y, where X and Y should be logically parallel)

D and E: Incorrectly use the phrases such as have endured as at least 6,000 years and have been enduring for at least 6,000 years.

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alex.gellatly wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in
(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
(c) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured
(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for
The 3:2 split here is:

"good growing conditions" vs "of good growing conditions".

Let's take a look at the latter.

"the combination of a reliable supply of water and of good growing conditions...". This one illogically distorts the meaning by making it seem as if there was a "reliable supply" of good growing conditions. This is, of course, wrong. Hence we eliminate C/D/E.

Between A and B,
"endure for" is the correct usage, while "endured in" is incorrect.

B is correct.

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alex.gellatly wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in
(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
(c) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured
(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for
Let's go option by option.

Option A:
the combination of X and Y both encouraged blah blah.
Here "combination" and "both" are redundant.
See the last part of the sentence. it indicates that we need present perfect tense; therefore, "endured in" is incorrect. ==> Eliminate A.

Option B:
This option corrects all the problems present in option A. Keep it.

Option C:
"Traditions that endured for" has used past tense "endured" instead of "have endured for". ==> Eliminate C.

Option D:
"Traditions that have endured" is correct but it lacks "for". ==> Eliminate D.

Option E:
"Traditions that have been enduring for" have used present perfect continuous tense, but we need present perfect tense. ==> Eliminate E.

The option B, the best choice, stands as the correct answer.

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Would love to have an expert chime in -

Is it correct to assume that the "farming traditions" are still ongoing - to justify usage of "have".

My questions is - can we justify the usage of "have" by this rule - "When we are talking now in the present - about something in the past - we use Present Perfect. "
e.g. They seem to have developed this habit before their extinction 600 years ago.

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sw222 wrote:
Would love to have an expert chime in -

Is it correct to assume that the "farming traditions" are still ongoing - to justify usage of "have".

My questions is - can we justify the usage of "have" by this rule - "When we are talking now in the present - about something in the past - we use Present Perfect. "
e.g. They seem to have developed this habit before their extinction 600 years ago.
Good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for at least 6,000 years.

You are asking the wrong question.
The question you should ask is as follows:
Does HAVE ENDURED (present perfect) convey a sensical meaning?
One purpose of the present perfect is to express an action that started in the past and might continue in the present.
It is possible that the farming traditions that were encouraged in the past are still in effect right now, justifying the use of the present perfect.
Since a sensical meaning is conveyed, do not eliminate the answer choice.

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Hi GGNY
can you please explain why E is incorrect.

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hi Guru
please correct me if i am wrong
i feel that the construction: the combination of X and of Y is wrong. do we really need to put that second "of" after "and"

Also please tell me as what is so outright wrong about present perfect continuous in E

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alex.gellatly wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in
(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
(c) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured
(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for
A and D: To yield a parallel structure, both encouraged must be followed by and + VERB.
Eliminate A and D.

C and E: the combination OF a reliable supply and OF good growing conditions
Here, the of in red seems to imply that there are two distinct combinations:
the combination OF a reliable supply AND the combination OF good growing conditions
Not the intended meaning.
The required idiom is the combination of X and Y.
Eliminate C and E.

The correct answer is B.

E: have been enduring
have been + VERBing serves to express a CONTINUOUS ACTION.
Here, to endure means TO LAST.
To last is an action that -- on its own -- is continuous.
Since to endure on its own conveys a continuous action, the use of a continous tense seems redundant.

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
alex.gellatly wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in
(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
(c) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured
(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for
A and D: To yield a parallel structure, both encouraged must be followed by and + VERB.
Eliminate A and D.

C and E: the combination OF a reliable supply and OF good growing conditions
Here, the of in red seems to imply that there are two distinct combinations:
the combination OF a reliable supply AND the combination OF good growing conditions
Not the intended meaning.
The required idiom is the combination of X and Y.
Eliminate C and E.

The correct answer is B.

E: have been enduring
have been + VERBing serves to express a CONTINUOUS ACTION.
Here, to endure means TO LAST.
To last is an action that -- on its own -- is continuous.
Since to endure on its own conveys a continuous action, the use of a continous tense seems redundant.
Hi Mitch, do we have an agreement issue in C? Should "the combination OF X and OF Y" be plural or singular? I'm asking as I came across a problem in which "transpiration FROM soil and FROM plants" is considered singular.

Thank in advanced for your help.

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7l7t7 wrote:
Quote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(c) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
Hi Mitch, do we have an agreement issue in C? Should "the combination OF X and OF Y" be plural or singular? I'm asking as I came across a problem in which "transpiration FROM soil and FROM plants" is considered singular.

Thank in advanced for your help.
Correct!
In C, have encouraged (plural) does not agree with the combination (singular).

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Thanks very much, Mitch.

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alex.gellatly wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in
(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
(c) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured
(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for
(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in
The word COMBINATION implies that the two conditions combine to have an effect. So, the word BOTH is redundant. ELIMINATE A

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
Looks good.
Also, the present perfect tense have endured suggests that the "enduring" may continue into the future.

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
The idiom is "a combination OF X AND Y", not "a combination OF X AND OF Y"
ELIMINATE

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured
ELIMINATE

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for
ELIMINATE

Answer: B

Cheers,
Brent

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