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## GMATPrep Exampack 1 -- Modifier

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lamania Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts
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#### GMATPrep Exampack 1 -- Modifier

Sun Nov 03, 2013 9:33 am
Few of the corporate contributions to the earthquake relief fund, aside from Peterocom, were a significant difference from the usual amounts given by large companies for major international disasters.

a) aside from Peterocom, were a significant difference from the usual amounts
b) Peterocom's excepted, were a substantial departure from the usual amount of those
c) Peterocom excepted, broke the usual mold of those
d) notwithstanding Peterocom, veered much from the usual levels
e) apart from Peterocom's, departed significantly from the usual amounts

OA: E

I have two questions regarding this question.

1) I can't understand why "those" in B and C is redundant? I'm thinking "those" refers to the "corporate contributions" given by the large companies. Is it not?

2) When is it ok to think the possessive term is correct like E for the above question?
For example, I chose D for the question below from GMAT Prep Question Pack and the explanation for D's inaccuracy was lack of clarity regarding the Moon's "what". Therefore, for the question at hand, I avoided B and E because of the use of "Peterocom's". How are these two scenarios different from the question below in which this use is wrong?

Thank you so much for your help!

source: GMAT Prep Question Pack
Because of the Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, but also 400 times farther away from Earth, so both the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

A. Because of the Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, but also 400 times farther away from Earth, so both the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.
B. The Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, is also 400 times farther away from Earth, so the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.
C. The Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky because the Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, and also 400 times farther away from Earth.
D. Four hundred times larger than the Moon and 400 times farther away from Earth, the Sun has the same apparent size in the sky as the Moon's.
E. Four hundred times larger than the Moon and also 400 times farther away from Earth, so the Sun in the sky has the same apparent size as the Moon.

Last edited by lamania on Tue Nov 05, 2013 5:47 pm; edited 1 time in total

Joseph_Alexander Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
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Fri Aug 01, 2014 1:42 am
"few of the contributions", "aside from Peterocom"

Sentence compares Contributions to Peterocom

Wrong comparison!

All options except E can be eliminate for this reason.

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Fri Nov 29, 2013 8:19 am
lamania wrote:
1) I can't understand why "those" in B and C is redundant? I'm thinking "those" refers to the "corporate contributions" given by the large companies. Is it not?
In B and C, the referent for those seems to be contributions, implying the following:
contributions given by large companies.
A contribution = SOMETHING GIVEN.
Thus, it is redundant to say that SOMETHING GIVEN was GIVEN by large companies.

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prakashchandra Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts
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Sun Nov 03, 2013 1:54 pm
What is the OA?

I think B..

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Sun Nov 03, 2013 8:58 pm
Because of the Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, but also 400 times farther away from Earth, so both the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

A. INCORRECT; Because of the Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, but also 400 times farther away from Earth, so both the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.--> No connection between the bold texts

B. The Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, is also 400 times farther away from Earth, so the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

C. INCORRECT; The Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky because the Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, and also 400 times farther away from Earth. --> verb is missing

D. INCORRECT; Four hundred times larger than the Moon and 400 times farther away from Earth, the Sun has the same apparent size in the sky as the Moon's. --> for Things.. it's always better to refer using pronoun such as "as that of"

E. INCORRECT; Four hundred times larger than the Moon and also 400 times farther away from Earth, so the Sun in the sky has the same apparent size as the Moon. -->Modifier issue

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AbhiS Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
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Mon Nov 04, 2013 12:01 am
Few of the corporate contributions to the earthquake relief fund, aside from Peterocom, were a significant difference from the usual amounts given by large companies for major international disasters.

a) aside from Peterocom, were a significant difference from the usual amounts - Incorrect
(the topic of discussion is the contribution from corporates - the starting of the underlined sentence should read aside from Peterocom's - implying except of Peterocom's contribution)

b) Peterocom's expected, were a substantial departure from the usual amount of those Incorrect
( this is a meaning error - Peterocom's expected - We are trying to say except of Peterocom's contribution not what Peterocom's expectations are)

c) Peterocom expected, broke the usual mold of those - Incorrect (Same error as A)

d) notwithstanding Peterocom, veered much from the usual levels Incorrect ((Same error as A)

e) apart from Peterocom's, departed significantly from the usual amounts Correct
( Correctly mentions apart from Peterocom's hence implying Peterocom's contribution)

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Mon Nov 04, 2013 4:35 am
Quote:
Because of the Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, but also 400 times farther away from Earth, so both the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

A: Because of the Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, but also 400 times farther away from Earth, so both the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

B. The Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, is also 400 times farther away from Earth, so the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

C. The Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky because the Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, and also 400 times farther away from Earth.

D. Four hundred times larger than the Moon and 400 times farther away from Earth, the Sun has the same apparent size in the sky as the Moon's.

E. Four hundred times larger than the Moon and also 400 times farther away from Earth, so the Sun in the sky has the same apparent size as the Moon.
In A and E, so is not preceded by an independent clause. When so serves as a coordinating conjunction -- as it does here -- it must connect two independent clauses, each with its own subject and verb. Eliminate A and E.

In C, the subject that follows because -- THE SUN -- lacks a verb. Because the sun DOES WHAT EXACTLY? Eliminate C.

In D, the Moon's seems to be standing in for the Moon's SIZE, implying the following comparison:
The Sun has the same apparent size as THE MOON'S SIZE HAS.
We can't say that THE MOON'S SIZE has a SIZE. Eliminate D.

The OA:
The Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, is also 400 times farther away from Earth, so the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

Here, so correctly serves as a coordinating conjunction connecting two independent clauses, each with its own subject and verb:
Clause 1: THE SUN...IS also 400 times farther away from Earth.
Clause 2: THE SUN AND THE MOON HAVE the same apparent size in the sky.

The phrase is also serves a semantic purpose, implying that one aspect of the sun -- that it is 400 times larger than the Moon -- does not tell the WHOLE STORY.
The sun IS ALSO 400 times farther away from Earth.
The RESULT is that the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

Another example:
Mr. Johnson, my math teacher for the past two years, IS ALSO my soccer coach.
Here, one aspect of Mr. Johnson -- that he has been my math teacher for the past two years -- does not tell the whole story.
Mr. Johnson IS ALSO my soccer coach.

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vishalpathak Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
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Thu Nov 28, 2013 4:02 am
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Quote:
Because of the Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, but also 400 times farther away from Earth, so both the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

A: Because of the Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, but also 400 times farther away from Earth, so both the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

B. The Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, is also 400 times farther away from Earth, so the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

C. The Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky because the Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, and also 400 times farther away from Earth.

D. Four hundred times larger than the Moon and 400 times farther away from Earth, the Sun has the same apparent size in the sky as the Moon's.

E. Four hundred times larger than the Moon and also 400 times farther away from Earth, so the Sun in the sky has the same apparent size as the Moon.
In A and E, so is not preceded by an independent clause. When so serves as a coordinating conjunction -- as it does here -- it must connect two independent clauses, each with its own subject and verb. Eliminate A and E.

In C, the subject that follows because -- THE SUN -- lacks a verb. Because the sun DOES WHAT EXACTLY? Eliminate C.

In D, the Moon's seems to be standing in for the Moon's SIZE, implying the following comparison:
The Sun has the same apparent size as THE MOON'S SIZE HAS.
We can't say that THE MOON'S SIZE has a SIZE. Eliminate D.

The OA:
The Sun, which is 400 times larger than the Moon, is also 400 times farther away from Earth, so the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

Here, so correctly serves as a coordinating conjunction connecting two independent clauses, each with its own subject and verb:
Clause 1: THE SUN...IS also 400 times farther away from Earth.
Clause 2: THE SUN AND THE MOON HAVE the same apparent size in the sky.

The phrase is also serves a semantic purpose, implying that one aspect of the sun -- that it is 400 times larger than the Moon -- does not tell the WHOLE STORY.
The sun IS ALSO 400 times farther away from Earth.
The RESULT is that the Sun and the Moon have the same apparent size in the sky.

Another example:
Mr. Johnson, my math teacher for the past two years, IS ALSO my soccer coach.
Here, one aspect of Mr. Johnson -- that he has been my math teacher for the past two years -- does not tell the whole story.
Mr. Johnson IS ALSO my soccer coach.
Hi Mitch,

If Moon's in option D stands for Moon's size then shouldn't the sentence be
The Sun has the same apparent size as THE MOON'S SIZE
The Sun has the same apparent size as THE MOON'S SIZE HAS

Regards,
Vishal

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Thu Nov 28, 2013 7:08 am
vishalpathak wrote:
Hi Mitch,

If Moon's in option D stands for Moon's size then shouldn't the sentence be
The Sun has the same apparent size as THE MOON'S SIZE
The Sun has the same apparent size as THE MOON'S SIZE HAS

Regards,
Vishal
The verb is implied.
Mary attends the same school as John.
Conveyed meaning:
Mary attends the same school as John [attends].
The verb in brackets is omitted, but its presence is implied.
D: The Sun has the same apparent size as the moon's size [has].
Again, the verb in brackets is omitted, but its presence is implied.

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ilyana Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
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Fri Nov 29, 2013 2:29 am
lamania wrote:
Few of the corporate contributions to the earthquake relief fund, aside from Peterocom, were a significant difference from the usual amounts given by large companies for major international disasters.

a) aside from Peterocom, were a significant difference from the usual amounts
b) Peterocom's excepted, were a substantial departure from the usual amount of those
c) Peterocom excepted, broke the usual mold of those
d) notwithstanding Peterocom, veered much from the usual levels
e) apart from Peterocom's, departed significantly from the usual amounts

OA: E

I have two questions regarding this question.

1) I can't understand why "those" in B and C is redundant? I'm thinking "those" refers to the "corporate contributions" given by the large companies. Is it not?

2) When is it ok to think the possessive term is correct like E for the above question?
For example, I chose D for the question below from GMAT Prep Question Pack and the explanation for D's inaccuracy was lack of clarity regarding the Moon's "what". Therefore, for the question at hand, I avoided B and E because of the use of "Peterocom's". How are these two scenarios different from the question below in which this use is wrong?

Thank you so much for your help!
1) you are correct, "those" refers to "corporate contributions". However, if we look at the correct answer, we'll realize that it conveys the same intended meaning and nothing is lost: "usual amounts given by large companies" (it is understood that we are talking about amounts of contributions).

Therefore, although correct, "those" can be considered redundant.

2) I can't provide the full list of all situations where possessive noun is correct, but here it's absolutely necessary.

If we don't use possessive noun, we'll end up comparing contributions (money) with Petercom (company).

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ilyana Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
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Fri Nov 29, 2013 3:06 am
lamania wrote:
Few of the corporate contributions to the earthquake relief fund, aside from Peterocom, were a significant difference from the usual amounts given by large companies for major international disasters.

a) aside from Peterocom, were a significant difference from the usual amounts
b) Peterocom's excepted, were a substantial departure from the usual amount of those
c) Peterocom excepted, broke the usual mold of those
d) notwithstanding Peterocom, veered much from the usual levels
e) apart from Peterocom's, departed significantly from the usual amounts

OA: E
As to the problem itself,

we have several splits here:

1) Peterocom vs. Peterocom's
As stated by AbhiS and in my post above, here we should use possessive noun --> A, C, D are out

2) noun vs. verb
This is not a grammar mistake, but usually the GMAT prefers verbs over nouns.

A: "were a significant difference"
B: "were a substantial departure"

The verbs (which are used in the rest of answer choices) are somewhat more direct and concise.
E: "departed significantly"

--> A and B are out.

We already arrived at the correct answer E. However, there are more issues in this problem:

3) choice of words

In D: "notwithstanding" means "although" or "in spite of something" --> creates nonsensical meaning.

The right usage of "notwithstanding" (from Longman dictionary):
Notwithstanding differences, there are clear similarities in all of the world's religions.
Fame and fortune notwithstanding, Donna never forgot her hometown.

In D: "veered much from the usual levels given by large companies."

"Levels given" sounds strange to me. It should be "contributions given", "money given" or "amounts given".

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aflaam Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Sun Jan 31, 2016 2:56 am
Nice discussion,
Is D, in second question, also incorrect because it has no verb after as?

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Sun Jan 31, 2016 4:09 am
aflaam wrote:
Nice discussion,
Is D, in second question, also incorrect because it has no verb after as?
This line of reasoning is not valid.
The OA to SC107 in the OG13:
The cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants.
Here, no verb follows as.

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aflaam Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Mon Feb 01, 2016 4:20 am
GMATGuruNY wrote:
aflaam wrote:
Nice discussion,
Is D, in second question, also incorrect because it has no verb after as?
This line of reasoning is not valid.
The OA to SC107 in the OG13:
The cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants.
Here, no verb follows as.
So the correct comparison would be
-->the Sun has the same apparent size in the sky as [has] the Moon
or
-->the Sun has the same apparent size in the sky as the Moon [has]
(sun compared with moon )

In D we are comparing sun with moon's size;therefore, illogical comparison

Is this reasoning correct?

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Mon Feb 01, 2016 4:25 am
aflaam wrote:
GMATGuruNY wrote:
aflaam wrote:
Nice discussion,
Is D, in second question, also incorrect because it has no verb after as?
This line of reasoning is not valid.
The OA to SC107 in the OG13:
The cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants.
Here, no verb follows as.
So the correct comparison would be
-->the Sun has the same apparent size in the sky as [has] the Moon
or
-->the Sun has the same apparent size in the sky as the Moon [has]
(sun compared with moon )

In D we are comparing sun with moon's size;therefore, illogical comparison

Is this reasoning correct?
Correct!

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