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GMAT PREP - in july 1965

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GMAT PREP - in july 1965

by fiza gupta » Tue Jan 10, 2017 10:10 am
In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ever close-up photographs of another planet, which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon's in that it was pockmarked by moon like craters and was dry and apparently dead.

a. which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon's in that it was pockmarked by moon like craters and was dry and apparently dead.
b. which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, and it was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has
c. which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon's
d. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon's, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moon like craters
e. photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon

OA:E
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by Ali Tariq » Tue Jan 10, 2017 11:48 am
This SC question has been discussed many times on almost all the forums.

Do you have any specific questions regarding this SC that you feel have not been addressed?
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by ceilidh.erickson » Tue Jan 10, 2017 2:12 pm
This question is testing MODIFIERS and COMPARISONS
In July 1965 Mariner IV passed by Mars and took the first-ever close-up photographs of another planet, which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon's in that it was pockmarked by moon like craters and was dry and apparently dead.

a. which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon's in that it was pockmarked by moon like craters and was dry and apparently dead.
b. which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, and it was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has
c. which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon's
d. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon's, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moon like craters
e. photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon
Whenever an underlined portion begins with WHICH, the GMAT is almost certainly testing MODIFIER usage. "Which" is a relative pronoun that must modify the noun (or noun phrase) directly preceding it. This is one of the GMAT's favorite SC issues to test, probably because it is so often misused in spoken English.

Since the logical meaning of the sentence is that the photographs showed new information about the Martian surface, the "which" clause is questionable: it may be modifying "other planets" rather than "photographs." Technically, we can treat [photographs of other planets] as a noun phrase, and a "which" clause could modify it. However, the GMAT is likely to reword the correct answer to avoid the ambiguity issue.

a. which showed that the Martian surface was like that of the Moon's in that it was pockmarked by moon like craters and was dry and apparently dead.
- questionable (though not necessarily incorrect) use of "which" clause
- redundant comparison. We can say "like that of the Moon" or "like the Moon's," but "like that of the Moon's" is redundant.
- "it" is ambiguous

b. which showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface, and it was pockmarked by craters like the Moon has
- questionable "which" clause
- the "it was" clause is not logically parallel to the preceding clause
- incorrect comparison structure. We can say "craters like the Moon's" or "pockmarked by craters, as the Moon is." The "has" does not belong here.

c. which showed the Martian surface as a dry, apparently dead one, which was pockmarked with craters such as the Moon's
- 2 questionable "which" clauses
- "such as" is used for actual examples, not similarities. This makes it seem like Mars is pockmarked by the Moon's craters - nonsensical!

d. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon's, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moon like craters
- switching to "photos showing" fixes the modifier issue
- however, there is still a redundant comparison
- the "it was" clause is not logically parallel to any other clause

e. photos that showed a dry, apparently dead Martian surface pockmarked with craters like those on the Moon
- correct! No modifier or comparison issues.

The correct answer is E.
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by ceilidh.erickson » Tue Jan 10, 2017 2:17 pm
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by rsarashi » Fri Apr 14, 2017 9:15 am
d. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon's, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moon like craters
- switching to "photos showing" fixes the modifier issue
- however, there is still a redundant comparison
- the "it was" clause is not logically parallel to any other clause
Hi Ceilidh ,

Can we eliminate this option by using SHOWING? Generally we use ING when we are doing something in current right?

Please explain.

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by rsarashi » Sat Apr 15, 2017 8:14 pm
Hello Experts ,

Please share your thoughts.

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by ceilidh.erickson » Sun Apr 16, 2017 10:27 am
rsarashi wrote:
d. photos showing the Martian surface to be like that of the Moon's, dry and apparently dead, and it was pockmarked by moon like craters
- switching to "photos showing" fixes the modifier issue
- however, there is still a redundant comparison
- the "it was" clause is not logically parallel to any other clause
Hi Ceilidh ,

Can we eliminate this option by using SHOWING? Generally we use ING when we are doing something in current right?

Please explain.
That's not always true, no. When ING is used with a present tense conjugation of TO BE (IS, AM, ARE), it creates a PRESENT CONTINUOUS verb, which connotes an action currently happening. I am typing at this exact moment.

We can also use it in the PAST CONTINUOUS (I was typing yesterday), the future continuous (I will be typing tomorrow), the future perfect continuous (I will have been typing...) etc., etc. These do not express something CURRENT (right now), but rather something ONGOING (at whatever time that action was taking place).

When an ING is used as a MODIFIER, the same applies - it expresses ongoing action, not necessarily present-tense action. It is perfectly acceptable to say "photos showing..." in this context.
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by ceilidh.erickson » Sun Apr 16, 2017 10:33 am
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