When students receive positive feedback that focuses on getting a question correct or their perceived intelligence, they

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When students receive positive feedback that focuses on getting a question correct or their perceived intelligence, they are less likely to attempt harder assignments than are students who are praised for their effort or the process they used. Because of this phenomenon, teachers who focus on effort and process are more likely to see better learning outcomes than those who focus on whether an individual question was correct or not.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Students are more likely to learn from doing harder problems than they are to learn from easier ones.

(B) Positive feedback is the best way to motivate students to learn.

(C) Students can clearly articulate the difference between different types of positive feedback.

(D) Feedback based on perceived intelligence is less favorable toward students than are other types of feedback.

(E) The most important indicator of success is whether students are willing to attempt harder questions and assignments.


OA A

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We can solve this question using LOGICAL approach, as there is an assumption being made which we have to identify.
The argument is thus: since feedback about process causes students to seek out harder questions, better learning outcomes will be achieved by giving this type of feedback. The hidden assumption in this sentence is clear.

Option A - Correct
If that was true, the entire argument that a specific type of feedback leads to a specific type of learning outcome would fall apart. Hence, this validates this answer choice as the correct

Option B - Incorrect
This statement doesn't help differentiate between the two types of positive feedback being compared because the argument only deals with two types of positive feedback. So, this does not affect the outcome.

Option C - Incorrect
This is necessary but it is NOT as an assumption - the research provided proves this is the case.

Option D - Incorrect
Also, this is something the study shows - no need to assume.

Option E - Incorrect
This is a bit close to option A, well, but confusing. Nonetheless, we have no need to assume this is the MOST important indicator, (or even that it is an indicator at all) only that trying harder to questions will lead to other things, which are indicators of success.