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100 points for $49 worth of Veritas practice GMATs FREE VERITAS PRACTICE GMAT EXAMS Earn 10 Points Per Post Earn 10 Points Per Thanks Earn 10 Points Per Upvote ## The principal feature of the r ##### This topic has 4 expert replies and 10 member replies ## The principal feature of the r The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light. A. which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view B. which include reminders for watching the endorsement, to compare signatures and view C. by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and viewing D. including reminders to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures and viewing E. including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view Answer:E _________________ Charged up again to beat the beast Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 17 Jul 2009 Posted: 292 messages Followed by: 1 members Upvotes: 6 Vertical scan: B - parallelism problem 'watching the endorsement, to compare' C - parallelism OK, but prefer verb over noun 'reminders to watch' over 'reminders for watching' D - parallelism problem 'to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures' A - which comes for authencity ...implies authenticity includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view ...that does not make sense E - IMO Legendary Member Joined 02 Jun 2008 Posted: 527 messages Upvotes: 17 Target GMAT Score: 720 IMO E maihuna wrote: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light. A. which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view --> should be include, subject is instructions. B. which include reminders for watching the endorsement, to compare signatures and view - watching,compare,view -> not parallel C. by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and viewing -> seems that primary feature includes reminders, instead it should be printed instructions that include reminders. D. including reminders to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures and viewing - watch,comparing,viewing are not parallel E. including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view - this is parallel and "including" modifies the previous clause correctly. Answer:E Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 10 Mar 2010 Posted: 46 messages Followed by: 1 members I read in one of the posts that "comma+including" should modify the previous Noun, but I fail to understand how does that rule applies to the correct option E here and to OAs in the following GPREP questions. Please help me understand the right stuff. ....instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, E)including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view.... In my opinion including should modify instructions and not authenticity. 1)A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. A. which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing B. which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing C. which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of D. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing E. including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of OA:D In my opinion includin should modify "remedies" and not the preceding noun i.e. "Shark population". 2)Roughly one-half of the world’s population, including virtually all of East and Southeast Asia also, is wholly dependent on rice to be its staple food. A. including virtually all of East and Southeast Asia also, is wholly dependent on rice to be B. including virtually all of East and Southeast Asia, is wholly dependent on rice as C. virtually all of East and Southeast Asia as well, wholly dependent on rice as D. which includes virtually all of East and Southeast Asia’s, being wholly dependent on rice as E. which includes virtually all of East and Southeast Asia also, is wholly dependent on rice to be OA:B In my opinion including should modify the whole phrase and not just "world's population". ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMAT Instructor Joined 03 Mar 2008 Posted: 3380 messages Followed by: 1499 members Upvotes: 2256 GMAT Score: 800 CaptainM wrote: I read in one of the posts that "comma+including" should modify the previous Noun, but I fail to understand how does that rule applies to the correct option E here and to OAs in the following GPREP questions. Please help me understand the right stuff. ....instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, E)including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view.... In my opinion including should modify instructions and not authenticity. 1)A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. A. which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing B. which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing C. which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of D. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing E. including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of OA:D In my opinion includin should modify "remedies" and not the preceding noun i.e. "Shark population". 2)Roughly one-half of the world’s population, including virtually all of East and Southeast Asia also, is wholly dependent on rice to be its staple food. A. including virtually all of East and Southeast Asia also, is wholly dependent on rice to be B. including virtually all of East and Southeast Asia, is wholly dependent on rice as C. virtually all of East and Southeast Asia as well, wholly dependent on rice as D. which includes virtually all of East and Southeast Asia’s, being wholly dependent on rice as E. which includes virtually all of East and Southeast Asia also, is wholly dependent on rice to be OA:B In my opinion including should modify the whole phrase and not just "world's population". yes. comma + "including" can stand for the preceding NOUN -- or the preceding NOUN + MODIFIERS, if there are modifiers attached to the noun. in fact, most things that modify nouns can do this. (if you attach a short modifier to a noun, that shouldn't suddenly require the creation of an entirely new set of modifiers; the same ones should still work.) that should cover these cases (and all other such cases). _________________ Ron has been teaching various standardized tests for 20 years. -- Pueden hacerle preguntas a Ron en castellano Potete chiedere domande a Ron in italiano On peut poser des questions à Ron en français Voit esittää kysymyksiä Ron:lle myös suomeksi -- Quand on se sent bien dans un vêtement, tout peut arriver. Un bon vêtement, c'est un passeport pour le bonheur. Yves Saint-Laurent -- Learn more about ron Last edited by lunarpower on Thu Jun 26, 2014 4:44 am; edited 1 time in total Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week. Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 27 Aug 2010 Posted: 75 messages Upvotes: 1 Test Date: 3 November 2010 Target GMAT Score: 780 GMAT Score: 760 As quoted above: 1)A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. A. which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing B. which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing C. which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of D. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing E. including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of OA:D -------------- -Ron, is it grammatically correct to put a present continuous verb "including" and a present participle "establishing" in apposition. " including establishing" sounds a bit awkward. -Moreover the same question on the Manhattan S.c forum has a different wording. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/sc-a-study-by-the-ocean-wildlife-campaign-t9398.html ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMAT Instructor Joined 03 Mar 2008 Posted: 3380 messages Followed by: 1499 members Upvotes: 2256 GMAT Score: 800 magnus opus wrote: -Ron, is it grammatically correct to put a present continuous verb "including" and a present participle "establishing" in apposition. well ... if this is an official problem, then the answer is "yes". OFFICIALLY CORRECT ANSWERS ARE CORRECT -- don't question them! i.e., "why is this correct?" or "how does this work?" are valid questions to ask about official answers. "is this correct?" is not a productive question to ask about an official answer -- the answer is always yes. the only way this could be wrong, then, is if this problem isn't actually official. does anybody have a gmatprep screen shot of it? _________________ Ron has been teaching various standardized tests for 20 years. -- Pueden hacerle preguntas a Ron en castellano Potete chiedere domande a Ron in italiano On peut poser des questions à Ron en français Voit esittää kysymyksiä Ron:lle myös suomeksi -- Quand on se sent bien dans un vêtement, tout peut arriver. Un bon vêtement, c'est un passeport pour le bonheur. Yves Saint-Laurent -- Learn more about ron Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week. Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 27 Aug 2010 Posted: 75 messages Upvotes: 1 Test Date: 3 November 2010 Target GMAT Score: 780 GMAT Score: 760 I am not doubting the veracity of the official problem, but am doubting the skill of the typist. Someone may have taken it down incorrectly. I say so because the manhattan link I posted above has different wordings for option D. ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 15195 messages Followed by: 1861 members Upvotes: 13060 GMAT Score: 790 magnus opus wrote: As quoted above: 1)A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. A. which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing B. which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing C. which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of D. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing E. including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of OA:D -------------- I was asked by PM to comment on this thread. Quickest approach: In A and B, the singular verb includes implies that the pronoun which refers either to the singular noun decline or to the singular noun population, but neither the decline nor the population is including the list of remedies that follows. Eliminate A and B. C and E lack parallelism: the establishment of (the + noun + preposition), the establishing of (the + gerund + preposition), and the closing of (the + gerund + preposition) are not parallel with requiring commercial fishers (gerund + direct object). Eliminate C and E. The correct answer is D. D is correct primarily because A, B, C and E each have a clear error. In D, including and establishing are performing different functions. Generally, when a present participle (such as including) is preceded by a comma, it refers to the subject of the previous clause. It could be argued that including refers to the study: the study is including -- among the remedies that it recommends -- establishing size limits, closing state waters, and requiring fishers to have permits. Establishing is not a present participle but a gerund (a verb functioning as a noun). Establishing size limits is one of the remedies that the study is including. _________________ Mitch Hunt Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. Student Review #1 Student Review #2 Student Review #3 Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now. Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts Joined 11 May 2011 Posted: 5 messages Upvotes: 1 Hi Guru, Are you trying to say that the participle phrase(adverbial phrase), following a comma, modifies the action of the subject of the main clause. In the concerned example, "urged to undertake remedy" is the action of the subject(study). The adverbial phrase describe the extent(i.e. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing) of the action. Am i correct? Appreciate your time. Garry. Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 22 Jun 2012 Posted: 258 messages Followed by: 3 members Upvotes: 6 GMAT Score: 640 lunarpower wrote: CaptainM wrote: I read in one of the posts that "comma+including" should modify the previous Noun, but I fail to understand how does that rule applies to the correct option E here and to OAs in the following GPREP questions. Please help me understand the right stuff. ....instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, E)including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view.... In my opinion including should modify instructions and not authenticity. 1)A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. A. which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing B. which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing C. which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of D. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing E. including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of OA:D In my opinion includin should modify "remedies" and not the preceding noun i.e. "Shark population". 2)Roughly one-half of the world’s population, including virtually all of East and Southeast Asia also, is wholly dependent on rice to be its staple food. A. including virtually all of East and Southeast Asia also, is wholly dependent on rice to be B. including virtually all of East and Southeast Asia, is wholly dependent on rice as C. virtually all of East and Southeast Asia as well, wholly dependent on rice as D. which includes virtually all of East and Southeast Asia’s, being wholly dependent on rice as E. which includes virtually all of East and Southeast Asia also, is wholly dependent on rice to be OA:B In my opinion including should modify the whole phrase and not just "world's population". hmm. nice find. ok -- it appears that we'll have to widen the net a bit: in light of this new evidence, it seems that comma + "including" can stand for the preceding NOUN -- or the preceding NOUN + MODIFIERS, if there are modifiers attached to the noun. that should cover these cases (and all other such cases). Hi Ron, In the 2nd question, why is the usage of 'to be' wrong? Please let us know the correct usage with some examples.. _________________ Regards, Sach Legendary Member Joined 30 May 2012 Posted: 942 messages Followed by: 4 members Upvotes: 8 GMATGuruNY wrote: magnus opus wrote: As quoted above: 1)A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. A. which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing B. which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing C. which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of D. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing E. including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of OA:D -------------- I was asked by PM to comment on this thread. Quickest approach: In A and B, the singular verb includes implies that the pronoun which refers either to the singular noun decline or to the singular noun population, but neither the decline nor the population is including the list of remedies that follows. Eliminate A and B. C and E lack parallelism: the establishment of (the + noun + preposition), the establishing of (the + gerund + preposition), and the closing of (the + gerund + preposition) are not parallel with requiring commercial fishers (gerund + direct object). Eliminate C and E. The correct answer is D. D is correct primarily because A, B, C and E each have a clear error. In D, including and establishing are performing different functions. Generally, when a present participle (such as including) is preceded by a comma, it refers to the subject of the previous clause. It could be argued that including refers to the study: the study is including -- among the remedies that it recommends -- establishing size limits, closing state waters, and requiring fishers to have permits. Establishing is not a present participle but a gerund (a verb functioning as a noun). Establishing size limits is one of the remedies that the study is including. Hi GMATGuruNY, A quick question on the OA - Can we say that the Verb-ing modifier including actually refers to the NEAREST PRECEDING VERB and SUBJECT -- a number of remedies and to reverse ? Legendary Member Joined 30 May 2012 Posted: 942 messages Followed by: 4 members Upvotes: 8 Hi GMATGuruNY, Could you please provide your quick feedback on my above query ? Look forward to hear from you. Much thanks in advance! ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 15195 messages Followed by: 1861 members Upvotes: 13060 GMAT Score: 790 RBBmba@2014 wrote: Hi GMATGuruNY, A quick question on the OA - Can we say that the Verb-ing modifier including actually refers to the NEAREST PRECEDING VERB and SUBJECT -- a number of remedies and to reverse ? Many dictionaries define including as a PREPOSITION. On the GMAT, it is probably best to consider COMMA + including a NOUN modifier that serves to introduce examples of the nearest preceding plural noun. Do not worry about whether COMMA + including serves to refer to a preceding subject. Such thinking will only lead to confusion. OA: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. Here, COMMA + including serves to introduce examples of remedies (the nearest preceding plural noun). _________________ Mitch Hunt Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. Student Review #1 Student Review #2 Student Review #3 Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now. Legendary Member Joined 21 Jul 2015 Posted: 698 messages Followed by: 25 members Upvotes: 32 Test Date: ∞ → Target GMAT Score: 760 GMAT Score: 740 GMATGuruNY wrote: Many dictionaries define including as a PREPOSITION. On the GMAT, it is probably best to consider COMMA + including a NOUN modifier that serves to introduce examples of the nearest preceding plural noun. Do not worry about whether COMMA + including serves to refer to a preceding subject. Such thinking will only lead to confusion. OA: A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. Here, COMMA + including serves to introduce examples of remedies (the nearest preceding plural noun). Thank you so much Mr. Hunt this resolves so many doubts. _________________ R I C H A, My GMAT Journey: 470 → 720 → 740 Target Score: 760+ richacrunch2@gmail.com 1. Press thanks if you like my solution. 2. Contact me if you are not improving. (No Free Lunch!) • Magoosh Study with Magoosh GMAT prep Available with Beat the GMAT members only code • Award-winning private GMAT tutoring Register now and save up to$200

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