• NEW! FREE Beat The GMAT Quizzes
Hundreds of Questions Highly Detailed Reporting Expert Explanations
• 7 CATs FREE!
If you earn 100 Forum Points

Engage in the Beat The GMAT forums to earn
100 points for $49 worth of Veritas practice GMATs FREE VERITAS PRACTICE GMAT EXAMS Earn 10 Points Per Post Earn 10 Points Per Thanks Earn 10 Points Per Upvote ## SC: "Unlike frogs that metamorphose..." ##### This topic has 5 expert replies and 10 member replies Goto page • 1, • 2 ## SC: "Unlike frogs that metamorphose..." This is an official practice exam question with correct choice E. Really not sure why it is correct over B? Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period, it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are restricted to deeper bodies of water that do not dry up in summer or freeze solid in winter. a/ it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are b/ it takes the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada three to four years until it reaches adulthood, and therefore it is c/ in the Sierra Nevada, mountain yellow-legged tree frogs take three to four years to reach adulthood, thus being d/ mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years until they reach adulthood, thus e/ mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years to reach adulthood, with the result that they are ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 15388 messages Followed by: 1872 members Upvotes: 13060 GMAT Score: 790 Top Reply melanie.espeland wrote: In D, restricted is now an adjective of what? On the GMAT, COMMA + VERBed -- or COMMA + adverb + VERBed -- generally serves to modify the immediately preceding noun or noun phrase. In D, COMMA + thus restricted seems to refer to adulthood (the immediately preceding noun), implying that ADULTHOOD is thus restricted to deeper bodies of water. Not the intended meaning. Eliminate D. _________________ Mitch Hunt Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. Student Review #1 Student Review #2 Student Review #3 Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now. Legendary Member Joined 03 Feb 2014 Posted: 2073 messages Followed by: 135 members Upvotes: 955 GMAT Score: 800 melanie.espeland wrote: This is an official practice exam question with correct choice E. Really not sure why it is correct over B? Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period, it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are restricted to deeper bodies of water that do not dry up in summer or freeze solid in winter. a/ it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are b/ it takes the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada three to four years until it reaches adulthood, and therefore it is c/ in the Sierra Nevada, mountain yellow-legged tree frogs take three to four years to reach adulthood, thus being d/ mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years until they reach adulthood, thus e/ mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years to reach adulthood, with the result that they are Look at B. What is the subject of the sentence? To what does the it, the first word of the answer choice, refer? Anything? You can shorten choice B to Unlike frogs, it takes three to four years, and therefore it is restricted to deeper bodies of water. Huh? I suspect you get it now. ### GMAT/MBA Expert Elite Legendary Member Joined 23 Jun 2013 Posted: 10197 messages Followed by: 497 members Upvotes: 2867 GMAT Score: 800 Hi melanie.espeland, The word "unlike" (at the beginning of the sentence) is a common GMAT "trigger" word that tells us that this SC involves a comparison (which also means that we must use parallelism rules). The opening phrase "unlike frogs...." means that we need another noun that is comparable to a frog to follow the comma - in this case, "mountain yellow-legged frogs" is a perfect match. Eliminate A, B and C. In the remaining two answers, only answer E parallels the first phrase (the word "to" parallels "into") and uses a conclusion phrase that makes sense (the word "thus" in Answer D doesn't properly line up with the verb "restricted"). Final Answer: E GMAT assassins aren't born, they're made, Rich _________________ Contact Rich at Rich.C@empowergmat.com Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 30 Nov 2014 Posted: 78 messages Followed by: 2 members Upvotes: 1 So my only question after reading the explanation is why is the word "thus" incorrectly used in answer D? Thus indicates a conclusion, so why is this problematic? ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMAT Instructor Joined 08 Dec 2008 Posted: 13046 messages Followed by: 1253 members Upvotes: 5254 GMAT Score: 770 melanie.espeland wrote: This is an official practice exam question with correct choice E. Really not sure why it is correct over B? Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period, it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are restricted to deeper bodies of water that do not dry up in summer or freeze solid in winter. a/ it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are b/ it takes the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada three to four years until it reaches adulthood, and therefore it is c/ in the Sierra Nevada, mountain yellow-legged tree frogs take three to four years to reach adulthood, thus being d/ mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years until they reach adulthood, thus e/ mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years to reach adulthood, with the result that they are Important: When a sentence begins with "unlike/like" we know we have a comparison. When we get to the comma we should and STOP ask the question that the first part raises. So, once we read, Unlike frogs (that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period), we should stop and ask . . . "What is unlike frogs?" Aside: I placed "that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period" in brackets because it just modifies (tells us more about) the frog. So, we can essentially ignore this part. If the sentence is properly constructed, the part that immediately follows the comma will answer the question in a logical manner. Reading on we get... a/ it takes... So, "it takes" is unlike frogs? Makes no sense. ELIMINATE A b/ it takes... So, "it takes" is unlike frogs? Makes no sense. ELIMINATE B c/ in the Sierra Nevada... So, "in the Sierra Nevada" is unlike frogs? Makes no sense. ELIMINATE C d/ mountain yellow-legged frogs... Good. We're told that mountain yellow-legged frogs are unlike the first kind of frogs mentioned. KEEP D for now. e/ mountain yellow-legged frogs... Good. We're told that mountain yellow-legged frogs are unlike the first kind of frogs mentioned. KEEP E for now. Now compare D and E d/ mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years until they reach adulthood, thus restricted Thus restricted? Two things: 1) Without a "helping verb" (are), "restricted" is now an adjective. Makes no sense. 2) Also, there's an idiomatic issue with until The correct idiomatic usage here is it takes some length of time to VERB ELIMINATE D So, although it seems a little clunky, answer choice E is the best answer. Cheers, Brent _________________ Brent Hanneson â€“ Creator of GMATPrepNow.com Use my video course along with Sign up for free Question of the Day emails And check out all of these free resources GMAT Prep Now's comprehensive video course can be used in conjunction with Beat The GMATâ€™s FREE 60-Day Study Guide and reach your target score in 2 months! Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 30 Nov 2014 Posted: 78 messages Followed by: 2 members Upvotes: 1 Hi Brent, Thank you for the post. I'm still not clear on comparing choices D and E. In D, restricted is now an adjective of what? If it is an adjective of the frogs, why is this nonsensical? As for the idiom "until...", I cannot find this in any of my books and am an native English speaker. What exactly is the idiom, can you explain this further? Thank you Melanie Legendary Member Joined 03 Feb 2014 Posted: 2073 messages Followed by: 135 members Upvotes: 955 GMAT Score: 800 melanie.espeland wrote: Hi Brent, Thank you for the post. I'm still not clear on comparing choices D and E. In D, restricted is now an adjective of what? If it is an adjective of the frogs, why is this nonsensical? As for the idiom "until...", I cannot find this in any of my books and am an native English speaker. What exactly is the idiom, can you explain this further? Thank you Melanie Regarding until, the issue is not that there is some until idiom that is being misused. The issue is that putting until there is not idiomatic. The until is superfluous and putting it there is not really right. The idiomatic way to say it is, "frogs take three to four years to reach adulthood." Regarding thus, the problem is that it just says thus restricted. It might be ok if it said thus they are restricted, although then I believe the one sentence would need to be two sentences. Anyway, this issue becomes more obvious when we simplify things by chopping out part of the sentence. Check this out. Mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years to reach adulthood, thus restricted to deeper bodies of water that do not dry up in summer. Thus what is restricted? Doesn't say. For it to be correct, it would have to go something like this. Mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years to reach adulthood. Thus they are restricted to deeper bodies of water that do not dry up in summer. Have to be careful on the GMAT because they add stuff to flawed sentences to confuse readers into believing that the sentences somehow work. Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 30 Nov 2014 Posted: 78 messages Followed by: 2 members Upvotes: 1 Thanks Marty that was very helpful Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 07 Sep 2013 Posted: 37 messages Upvotes: 2 Hi Mitch, How does ",with ..." works? My understanding is that it modifies the entire clause and makes sense with the subject of the clause. Please correct my understanding, if wrong. Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 07 Sep 2013 Posted: 37 messages Upvotes: 2 shobhitk wrote: Hi Mitch, How does ",with ..." works? My understanding is that it modifies the entire clause and makes sense with the subject of the clause. Please correct my understanding, if wrong. Hi Mitch, Could you please respond to my note above? ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 15388 messages Followed by: 1872 members Upvotes: 13060 GMAT Score: 790 shobhitk wrote: shobhitk wrote: Hi Mitch, How does ",with ..." works? My understanding is that it modifies the entire clause and makes sense with the subject of the clause. Please correct my understanding, if wrong. Hi Mitch, Could you please respond to my note above? Check my post here: http://www.beatthegmat.com/use-of-with-gmatprep-questions-t89592.html _________________ Mitch Hunt Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. Student Review #1 Student Review #2 Student Review #3 Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now. Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts Joined 11 Apr 2016 Posted: 27 messages Hi Mitch, Could you help to clarify this one: So as I understand, on the GMAT, there are 2 cases in which "Clause + Comma" are used, and their differences are as below: 1. Clause + Comma + V-ing: "V-ing" is used to modify the whole preceding clause or the subject of the preceding clause. It cannot modify the nearest noun of the preceding clause. 2. Clause + Comma + V-ed: vice versa. The "V-ed" part can modify only the nearest noun, and can not modify the whole preceding clause or the subject of the preceding clause. Please help to correct my understandings. Thanks for your help! Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts Joined 11 Apr 2016 Posted: 27 messages Hi Mitch, Could you help to clarify this one: So as I understand, on the GMAT, there are 2 cases in which "Clause + Comma" are used, and their differences are as below: 1. Clause + Comma + V-ing: "V-ing" is used to modify the whole preceding clause or the subject of the preceding clause. It cannot modify the nearest noun of the preceding clause. 2. Clause + Comma + V-ed: vice versa. The "V-ed" part can modify only the nearest noun, and can not modify the whole preceding clause or the subject of the preceding clause. Please help to correct my understandings. Thanks for your help! ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 15388 messages Followed by: 1872 members Upvotes: 13060 GMAT Score: 790 thuyduong91vnu wrote: Hi Mitch, Could you help to clarify this one: So as I understand, on the GMAT, there are 2 cases in which "Clause + Comma" are used, and their differences are as below: 1. Clause + Comma + V-ing: "V-ing" is used to modify the whole preceding clause or the subject of the preceding clause. It cannot modify the nearest noun of the preceding clause. 2. Clause + Comma + V-ed: vice versa. The "V-ed" part can modify only the nearest noun, and can not modify the whole preceding clause or the subject of the preceding clause. Please help to correct my understandings. Thanks for your help! The statements in blue are correct. COMMA + VERBing serves to modify the preceding subject and verb (and thus can be said to modify the preceding clause). COMMA + VERBed serves to modify the preceding noun. But there are other types of modifiers that may also follow CLAUSE + COMMA -- too many to discuss in this post. _________________ Mitch Hunt Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. Student Review #1 Student Review #2 Student Review #3 Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now. • 1 Hour Free BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE Available with Beat the GMAT members only code • FREE GMAT Exam Know how you'd score today for$0

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• Free Practice Test & Review
How would you score if you took the GMAT

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• Award-winning private GMAT tutoring
Register now and save up to \$200

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• Get 300+ Practice Questions

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• Magoosh
Study with Magoosh GMAT prep

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• 5 Day FREE Trial
Study Smarter, Not Harder

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• Free Veritas GMAT Class
Experience Lesson 1 Live Free

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• Free Trial & Practice Exam
BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

• 5-Day Free Trial
5-day free, full-access trial TTP Quant

Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

### Top First Responders*

1 Ian Stewart 45 first replies
2 Jay@ManhattanReview 35 first replies
3 Brent@GMATPrepNow 34 first replies
4 Scott@TargetTestPrep 31 first replies
5 GMATGuruNY 18 first replies
* Only counts replies to topics started in last 30 days
See More Top Beat The GMAT Members

### Most Active Experts

1 Scott@TargetTestPrep

Target Test Prep

109 posts
2 Max@Math Revolution

Math Revolution

93 posts
3 Ian Stewart

GMATiX Teacher

56 posts
4 Brent@GMATPrepNow

GMAT Prep Now Teacher

51 posts
5 Jay@ManhattanReview

Manhattan Review

35 posts
See More Top Beat The GMAT Experts