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OG2017 RC 5

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richachampion Legendary Member
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OG2017 RC 5

Post Fri Sep 09, 2016 7:59 pm
When Jamaican-born social activist Marcus Garvey came to the United States in 1916, he arrived at precisely the right historical moment. What made the moment right was the return of African American soldiers from the First World War in 1918, which created an ideal constituency for someone with Garvey's message of unity, pride, and improved conditions for African American communities.

Hoping to participate in the traditional American ethos of individual success, many African American people entered the armed forces with enthusiasm, only to find themselves segregated from white troops and subjected to numerous indignities. They returned to a United States that was as segregated as it had been before the war. Considering similar experiences, anthropologist Anthony F. C. Wallace has argued that when a perceptible gap arises between a culture’s expectations and the reality of that culture, the resulting tension can inspire a revitalization movement: an organized, conscious effort to construct a culture that fulfills longstanding expectations.

Some scholars have argued that Garvey created the consciousness from which he built, in the 1920s, the largest revitalization movement in African American history. But such an argument only tends to obscure the consciousness of identity, strength, and sense of history that already existed in the African American community. Garvey did not create this consciousness; rather, he gave this consciousness its political expression.



14.According to the passage, which of the following contributed to Marcus Garvey's success?
A. He introduced cultural and historical consciousness to the African American community.
B. He believed enthusiastically in the traditional American success ethos.
C. His audience had already formed a consciousness that made it receptive to his message.
D. His message appealed to critics of African American support for United States military involvement in the First World War.
E. He supported the movement to protest segregation that had emerged prior to his arrival in the United States.



15.The passage suggests that many African American people responded to their experiences in the armed forces in which of the following ways?
A. They maintained as civilians their enthusiastic allegiance to the armed forces.
B. They questioned United States involvement in the First World War.
C. They joined political organizations to protest the segregation of African American troops and the indignities they suffered in the military.
D. They became aware of the gap between their expectations and the realities of American culture.
E. They repudiated Garvey's message of pride and unity.



16.It can be inferred from the passage that the “scholars” mentioned in the highlight text believe which of the following to be true?
A. Revitalization resulted from the political activism of returning African American soldiers following the First World War.
B. Marcus Garvey had to change a number of prevailing attitudes in order for his mass movement to find a foothold in the United States.
C. The prevailing sensibility of the African American community provided the foundation of Marcus Garvey’s political appeal.
D. Marcus Garvey hoped to revitalize consciousness of cultural and historical identity in the African American community.
E. The goal of the mass movement that Marcus Garvey helped bring into being was to build on the pride and unity among African Americans.



17.According to the passage, many African American people joined the armed forces during the First World War for which of the following reasons?
A. They wished to escape worsening economic conditions in African American communities.
B. They expected to fulfill ideals of personal attainment.
C. They sought to express their loyalty to the United States.
D. They hoped that joining the military would help advance the cause of desegregation.
E. They saw military service as an opportunity to fulfill Marcus Garvey’s political vision.

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ErikaPrepScholar Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Post Thu Oct 12, 2017 8:56 am
Hey Bounce87,

The key here is these two sentences:

    They returned to a United States that was as segregated as it had been before the war. Considering similar experiences, anthropologist Anthony F. C. Wallace has argued that when a perceptible gap arises between a culture’s expectations and the reality of that culture, the resulting tension can inspire a revitalization movement: an organized, conscious effort to construct a culture that fulfills longstanding expectations.


These sentences tell us that Wallace argued about a "perceptible gap [arising] between a culture's expectations and the reality of that culture" in response to "considering similar experiences [to African American soldiers returning from war]". This implies that experiences similar to that of African American soldiers returning from war led to individuals becoming aware of the gap between their expectations and the realities of their culture. Because these experiences are similar to that of African American soldiers returning from war, we can also infer that these African American soldiers *also* became aware of the gap between their expectations and the realities of their culture, making D the correct answer.

In general on the GMAT, sentences that are right next to each other are closely related in topic. The clue "similar experiences" helped us solidify that connection here.

One other thing to note: we don't need to assume anything about the revitalization movement to answer this question. The question doesn't ask what caused the revitalization movement; it asks how many African American people responded to their experiences in the war. These two sentences tell us that the war caused African American soldiers to feel this gap. Whether or not the gap between expectations and reality led to the revitalization movement doesn't actually matter to the question! On the GMAT, be super careful to pay attention to exactly what is asked and only answer that.

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bounce87 Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts Default Avatar
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Post Wed Oct 04, 2017 5:12 pm
Are we supposed to assume that the revitalization movement that took place was because there was a gap between their expectations and the realities of American culture? For all we know the revitalization movement could have been a response to something else?
Please correct me if I am wrong.

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bounce87 Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts Default Avatar
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Post Wed Oct 04, 2017 5:08 pm
Expert advice on why option D is the right answer for question 15 will be appreciated!

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