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    The Princeton Review

OG Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth

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AbeNeedsAnswers Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Default Avatar
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OG Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth

Post Tue Aug 29, 2017 2:38 pm
(This passage was adapted from an article written in 1992.)

Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth
in temporary employment that occurred in the United
states during the 1980’s to increased participation in
the workforce by certain groups, such as first-time or
reentering workers, who supposedly prefer such arrangements.
However, statistical analyses reveal that demo-
graphic changes in the workforce did not correlate with
variations in the total number of temporary workers.
Instead, these analyses suggest that factors affecting.
employers account for the rise in temporary employment.
One factor is product demand: temporary
employment is favored by employers who are adapting
to fluctuating demand for products while at the same
time seeking to reduce overall labor costs. Another
factor is labor’s reduced bargaining strength, which
allows employers more control over the terms of
employment. Given the analyses, which reveal that
growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the
level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of
groups said to prefer temporary jobs, firms should be
discouraged from creating excessive numbers of temporary
positions. Government policymakers should
consider mandating benefit coverage for temporary
employees, promoting pay equity between temporary
and permanent workers, assisting labor unions in organizing
temporary workers, and encouraging firms to
assign temporary jobs primarily to employees who
explicitly indicate that preference.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) present the results of statistical analyses and propose further studies.
(B) explain a recent development and predict its eventual consequences.
(C) identify the reasons for a trend and recommend measures to address it.
(D) outline several theories about a phenomenon and advocate one of them
(E) describe the potential consequences of implementing a new policy and argue in favor of that policy.

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the “factors affecting employers” that are mentioned in lines 9-10?
(A) Most experts cite them as having initiated the growth in temporary employment that occurred
during the 1980’s.
(B) They may account for the increase in the total number of temporary workers during the 1980’s.
(C) They were less important than demographic change in accounting for the increase of temporary
employment during the 1980’s.
(D) They included a sharp increase in the cost of labor during the 1980’s.
(E) They are more difficult to account for than at other factors involved in the growth of temporary
employment during the 1980’s.

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the use of temporary employment by firms during the 1980’s?
(A) It enabled firms to deal with fluctuating product demand far more efficiently than they before the 1980’s.
(B) It increased as a result of increased participation in the workforce by certain demograp groups.
(C) It was discouraged by government-mandated policies.
(D) It was a response to preferences indicated by certain employees for more flexible working arrangements.
(E) It increased partly as a result of workers’ reduced ability to control the terms of their employment.

4. The passage suggests which of the following about the workers who took temporary jobs during the 1980’s?
(A) Their jobs frequently led to permanent positions within firms.
(B) They constituted a less demographically diverse group than has been suggested.
(C) They were occasionally involved in actions organized by labor unions.
(D) Their pay declined during the decade in comparison with the pay of permanent employees.
(E) They did not necessarily prefer temporary employment to permanent employment.

5. The first sentence in the passage suggests that the observers mentioned in line 1 would be most likely to predict which of the following?
(A) That the number of new temporary positions would decline as fewer workers who preferred temporary employment entered the workforce.
(B) That the total number of temporary positions would increase as fewer workers were able to find
permanent positions
(C) That employers would have less control over the terms of workers’ employment as workers
increased their bargaining strength.
(D) That more workers would be hired for temporary positions as product demand increased.
(E) That the number of workers taking temporary positions would increase as more workers in any given demographic group entered the workforce.

6. In the context of the passage, the word “excessive” (line 21) most closely corresponds to which of the following phrases?
(A) Far more than can be justified by worker preferences
(B) Far more than can be explained by fluctuations in product demand.
(C) Far more than can be beneficial to the success of the firms themselves.
(D) Far more than can be accounted for by an expanding national economy.
(E) Far more than can be attributed to increases in the total number of people in the workforce.

7. The passage mentions each of the following as an appropriate kind of governmental action EXCEPT
(A) getting firms to offer temporary employment primarily to a certain group of people.
(B) encouraging equitable pay for temporary and permanent employees
(C) facilitating the organization of temporary workers by labor unions.
(D) establishing guidelines on the proportion of temporary workers that firms should employ
(E) ensuring that temporary workers obtain benefits from their employers.

48: C
49: B
50: E
51: E
52: A
53: A
54: D

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Post Thu Sep 07, 2017 6:49 am
Quote:
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) present the results of statistical analyses and propose further studies.
(B) explain a recent development and predict its eventual consequences.
(C) identify the reasons for a trend and recommend measures to address it.
(D) outline several theories about a phenomenon and advocate one of them
(E) describe the potential consequences of implementing a new policy and argue in favor of that policy.
Consider how the first and last sentences are introduced:

First: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employment
Last: Government policymakers should consider

So we're trying to understand why there was an increase in temporary employment, and then we're given recommendations for how to address the issue. The answer is C

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Post Thu Sep 07, 2017 6:52 am
Quote:
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the “factors affecting employers” that are mentioned in lines 9-10?
(A) Most experts cite them as having initiated the growth in temporary employment that occurred
during the 1980’s.
(B) They may account for the increase in the total number of temporary workers during the 1980’s.
(C) They were less important than demographic change in accounting for the increase of temporary
employment during the 1980’s.
(D) They included a sharp increase in the cost of labor during the 1980’s.
(E) They are more difficult to account for than at other factors involved in the growth of temporary
employment during the 1980’s.
The point of the passage is that the observers who believe the growth in temporary employment can be attributed to shifting demographics are wrong. Rather, it's the factors affecting employees that is more likely to account for the phenomenon. The answer is B

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Post Thu Sep 07, 2017 6:58 am
Quote:
3. The passage suggests which of the following about the use of temporary employment by firms during the 1980’s?
(A) It enabled firms to deal with fluctuating product demand far more efficiently than they before the 1980’s.
(B) It increased as a result of increased participation in the workforce by certain demograp groups.
(C) It was discouraged by government-mandated policies.
(D) It was a response to preferences indicated by certain employees for more flexible working arrangements.
(E) It increased partly as a result of workers’ reduced ability to control the terms of their employment.
The relevant factors impacting temporary employment are listed in paragraph one. About midway through the paragraph we get the following: Another factor is labor’s reduced bargaining strength, which allows employers more control over the terms of employment.

The answer is E

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Post Thu Sep 07, 2017 8:55 am
Quote:
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the workers who took temporary jobs during the 1980’s?
(A) Their jobs frequently led to permanent positions within firms.
(B) They constituted a less demographically diverse group than has been suggested.
(C) They were occasionally involved in actions organized by labor unions.
(D) Their pay declined during the decade in comparison with the pay of permanent employees.
(E) They did not necessarily prefer temporary employment to permanent employment.
The key line: growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the
level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of
groups said to prefer temporary jobs


If the number of people taking temp jobs is greater than the number of people who want them, well, it stands to reason that some of the people taking those jobs would perhaps prefer full-time employment. The answer is E

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Post Thu Sep 07, 2017 9:03 am
Quote:
5. The first sentence in the passage suggests that the observers mentioned in line 1 would be most likely to predict which of the following?
(A) That the number of new temporary positions would decline as fewer workers who preferred temporary employment entered the workforce.
(B) That the total number of temporary positions would increase as fewer workers were able to find
permanent positions
(C) That employers would have less control over the terms of workers’ employment as workers
increased their bargaining strength.
(D) That more workers would be hired for temporary positions as product demand increased.
(E) That the number of workers taking temporary positions would increase as more workers in any given demographic group entered the workforce.
The first sentence suggests a direct correlation between the number of people entering the work force who desire temp jobs and the number of such jobs available. It stands to reason that if it's the case that when more people enter the work force seeking temp jobs, the number of these jobs increases, then when fewer people enter the work force seeking temp jobs, the number of these jobs would decrease. The answer is A

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Post Thu Sep 07, 2017 9:20 am
Quote:
6. In the context of the passage, the word “excessive” (line 21) most closely corresponds to which of the following phrases?
(A) Far more than can be justified by worker preferences
(B) Far more than can be explained by fluctuations in product demand.
(C) Far more than can be beneficial to the success of the firms themselves.
(D) Far more than can be accounted for by an expanding national economy.
(E) Far more than can be attributed to increases in the total number of people in the workforce.
The relevant line:

Given the analyses, which reveal that growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the
level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs
, firms should be discouraged from creating excessive numbers of temporary positions.


So excessive, in this context, simply means not creating too many temp jobs given worker preferences. The answer is A

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Post Thu Sep 07, 2017 9:24 am
Quote:
7. The passage mentions each of the following as an appropriate kind of governmental action EXCEPT
(A) getting firms to offer temporary employment primarily to a certain group of people.
(B) encouraging equitable pay for temporary and permanent employees
(C) facilitating the organization of temporary workers by labor unions.
(D) establishing guidelines on the proportion of temporary workers that firms should employ
(E) ensuring that temporary workers obtain benefits from their employers.
Let's go through them one by one. Four will be located in the passage, and one will not.

A: Yep - encouraging firms to assign temporary jobs primarily to employees who
explicitly indicate that preference.

B: Yep - promoting pay equity between temporary and permanent workers
C: Yep - assisting labor unions in organizing temporary workers,
D: Don't see it
E: Yep - mandating benefit coverage for temporary employees

The one not mentioned is D

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