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## OG 16 Question 27

This topic has 1 expert reply and 4 member replies
Neilsheth2 Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
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#### OG 16 Question 27

Mon Sep 14, 2015 12:53 am
In the seventh century B.C., the Roman alphabet was adapted from the Etruscan alphabet, which in turn had been adapted in the previous century from a western Greek alphabet, which itself had been adapted earlier in the same century from the Phoenician alphabet.

D. having been earlier adapted itself
E. earlier itself having been adapted

I am confused with the usage of HAD in OA A.

Could some one justify the usage of HAD-since had was previously used for Etruscan Alphabet. The Greek alphabet was also adapted in the same period but a little early in the century ?-IS that why the usage of HAD okay?

rsarashi Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Fri Dec 30, 2016 9:06 am
Quote:
One purpose of the past perfect (had + VERBed) is to express an action completed before another past event.
In the seventh century B.C., the Roman alphabet was adapted from the Etruscan alphabet, which in turn had been adapted in the previous century from a western Greek alphabet, which itself had been adapted earlier in the same century from the Phoenician alphabet.
Here:
The portion in red serves to express an action completed before the Roman alphabet was adapted.
The portion in blue serves to express an action completed before the Etruscan alphabet had been adapted.
The usage of three time-modifiers -- in the seventh century B.C., in the previous century, earlier in the same century -- makes the sequence of events clear.
[/quote]Hi GMATGuruNY ,

can you please explain that why B is wrong?

Thanks

victory Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts
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Fri Dec 30, 2016 1:33 am
so can i say that
had done shows an action which happen before an action presented by had done, have done and did.

conquistador Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Mon Sep 14, 2015 4:50 am
In the seventh century B.C., the Roman alphabet was adapted from the Etruscan alphabet, which in turn had been adapted in the previous century from a western Greek alphabet, which itself had been adapted earlier in the same century from the Phoenician alphabet.

D. having been earlier adapted itself
E. earlier itself having been adapted

Since the adaption event happened way back in the past, there is no place for present or present continuous or present perfect tense.
only A satisfies the criteria of past perfect tense.

Quote:
Could some one justify the usage of HAD-since had was previously used for Etruscan Alphabet. The Greek alphabet was also adapted in the same period but a little early in the century ?-IS that why the usage of HAD okay?
The list of events timewise
1. In the sixth century(remember previous century in sentence), Greek alphabet had been adapted earlier in the same century from the Phoenician alphabet.
2. In the sixth century, Etruscan alphabet had been adapted in the previous century from a western Greek alphabet
3. In the seventh century B.C., the Roman alphabet was adapted from the Etruscan alphabet

### GMAT/MBA Expert

GMATGuruNY GMAT Instructor
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Mon Sep 14, 2015 7:41 am
Neilsheth2 wrote:
I am confused with the usage of HAD in OA.
One purpose of the past perfect (had + VERBed) is to express an action completed before another past event.
In the seventh century B.C., the Roman alphabet was adapted from the Etruscan alphabet, which in turn had been adapted in the previous century from a western Greek alphabet, which itself had been adapted earlier in the same century from the Phoenician alphabet.
Here:
The portion in red serves to express an action completed before the Roman alphabet was adapted.
The portion in blue serves to express an action completed before the Etruscan alphabet had been adapted.
The usage of three time-modifiers -- in the seventh century B.C., in the previous century, earlier in the same century -- makes the sequence of events clear.

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hardwork Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts
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Mon Oct 31, 2016 11:49 pm
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Neilsheth2 wrote:
I am confused with the usage of HAD in OA.
One purpose of the past perfect (had + VERBed) is to express an action completed before another past event.
In the seventh century B.C., the Roman alphabet was adapted from the Etruscan alphabet, which in turn had been adapted in the previous century from a western Greek alphabet, which itself had been adapted earlier in the same century from the Phoenician alphabet.
Here:
The portion in red serves to express an action completed before the Roman alphabet was adapted.
The portion in blue serves to express an action completed before the Etruscan alphabet had been adapted.
The usage of three time-modifiers -- in the seventh century B.C., in the previous century, earlier in the same century -- makes the sequence of events clear.
Dear GMATGuruNY Sir!
I am confused with the use of "itself"in C&E, could you explain it? "Itself" refers to the Greek alphabet? OR It is ambiguous to figure it out? And the "itself+V-ing" modifies which part of the sentence?

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