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GMAT Prep RC

This topic has 1 expert reply and 0 member replies

GMAT Prep RC

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During the nineteenth-century, occupational information about women that was provided by the United States census-a population count conducted each decade-became more detailed and precise in response to social changes. Through 1840, simple enumeration by household mirrored a home-based agricultural economy and hierarchical social order: the head of the household (presumed male or absent) was specified by name, whereas other household members were only indicated by the total number of persons counted in various categories, including occupational categories. Like farms, most enterprises were family-run, so that the census measured economic activity as an attribute of the entire household, rather than of individuals.
The 1850 census, partly responding to antislavery and women’s rights movements, initiated the collection of specific information about each individual in a household. Not until 1870 was occupational information analyzed by gender: the census superintendent reported 1.8 million women employed outside the home in “gainful and reputable occupations.” In addition, he arbitrarily attributed to each family one woman “keeping house.” Overlap between the two groups was not calculated until 1890, when the rapid entry of women into the paid labor force and social issues arising from industrialization were causing women’s advocates and women statisticians to press for more thorough and accurate accounting of women’s occupations and wages.

How does this detail "the head of the household (presumed male or absent) was specified by name, other household members were only indicated by the total number of persons counted in various categories, including occupational categories" contribute to the main point of the passage which is "how the census did not properly count women in the workforce"? The passage does say that "other household members were only indicated by the total number of persons counted in various categories, including occupational categories". Doesn't this mean that women were counted?
Please explain!

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GMAT/MBA Expert

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It helps to include the specific problem that you struggled with here.

To your question, imagine this hypothetical:
Household A:
Head of Household: John Farmer
# of other household members: 7
occupation: farming

Would you say that we have counted the women in this case? How many of those 7 were women? We cannot assume 1 man + 1 woman + children. There may be in-laws or other extended family members in the household.

Women were not left out of the census, so they were counted... with the men an children. But they were not counted specifically, so we cannot say how many women exactly worked in each profession.

Does that help?

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Harvard Graduate School of Education


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