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GMAT PREP - according to PF Drucker

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GMAT PREP - according to PF Drucker

by fiza gupta » Mon Jan 09, 2017 12:32 am
According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM), which is designed to be adopted consistently throughout an organization and to improve customer service by using sampling theory to reduce the variability of a product's quality, can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. As Drucker notes, TQM's scientific approach is consistent with the statistical sampling techniques of the "rationalist" school of scientific management, and the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the "human relations" school of management.

However, TQM cannot simply be grafted onto these systems or onto certain other non-TQM management systems. Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies. While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent. For example, lower prices not only benefit consumers but also enhance an organization's competitive edge and ensure its continuance, thus benefiting employees and owners. TQM's emphasis on shared interests is reflected in the decentralized decision-making, integrated production activity, and lateral structure of organizations that achieve the benefits of TQM.

Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?
(A) It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.
(B) It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.
(C) It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.
(D) It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.
(E) It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.

OA:C
i have fallen for A, why A is incorrect.
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by ceilidh.erickson » Tue Jan 10, 2017 1:38 pm
Whenever a RC question asks you for the role of one part of the passage in relation to the rest, pay attention to shifts in tone.

In this passage, the word "however" indicates that there will be a contrast between the information presented in the 2nd paragraph and that presented in the 1st. Without invalidating the information given about TQM in the 1st paragraph, it provides new information to show that the connection between TQM and existing philosophies is not absolute, and that there are important differences.

If we were to outline these paragraphs, it might look like this:
I. phil. TQM consistent w/ parts of R & H schools
II. *but* TQM different: interests of emp, s.h., cust convergent

Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?

(A) It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.

"A phenomenon" means "something that happened." We wouldn't use this word to describe philosophies, schools of thought, or one person's beliefs, so there was no "phenomenon" in the 1st paragraph. "Contrasting explanations" would also have to be 2 different explanations - we don't have explanations of a thing that occurred; we have more (but contrasting) information about a philosophy.

(B) It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.
There was no "general principle" outlined in paragraph 1; there was a comparison made between different schools of thought. A general principle would be something like "whenever X happens, Y happens next." Essentially, the passage says "TQM is similar to other schools of thought in certain ways, but different in other ways." Paragraph 2 is not an exception, it's a continued explanation.

(C) It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.
Correct. The claim in the 1st is that TQM is "consistent with" other schools in certain ways. Paragraph 2 gives further information about why it's not consistent in other ways.

(D) It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.
There is an example given in the 2nd-to-last sentence, but it's an example that strengthens the claim of the previous sentence, not the previous paragraph. The paragraph as a whole is meant to provide contrasting information to the 1st, not to further explain the same point.

(E) It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.

The approach we're discussing is the same: the TQM philosophy. Each paragraph just discusses different aspects of it.

The answer is C.

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Ceilidh Erickson
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EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
Harvard Graduate School of Education


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