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## GMAT 2016OG SC 29

Crystal W Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
Joined
02 Mar 2016
Posted:
154 messages
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#### GMAT 2016OG SC 29

Wed Mar 02, 2016 11:37 am
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A) and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B) earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
C) earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D) earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E) earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
I have three questions. First, I think "earned" is not a pass participle to express the passive and then modify the speed records(this is the explanation on OG). Because it has the subject "she", I think "earned" is the main verb of the second clause which is connected by "and"
Second, Can I use "in which" to modify "time" as it show in choice D?
Third, why the structure "so new that many X were Y" is better than "so new for many X to be Y"

### GMAT/MBA Expert

GMATGuruNY GMAT Instructor
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Thu Mar 03, 2016 4:34 am
When you post an SC, please underline the relevant portion.

Crystal W wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A) and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B) earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
C) earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D) earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E) earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

why the structure "so new that many X were Y" is better than "so new for many X to be Y"
A: aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew
Here, the portion in red seems to convey the following meaning:
For other planes, aviation was FAMILIAR, but for the planes that Jacqueline Cochran flew, aviation was NEW.
Not the intended meaning.
Eliminate A.

Generally, COMMA + VERBing serves to express an action happening AT THE SAME TIME AS the preceding action.
In B and C, the usage of COMMA + earning implies that JC was EARNING speed records when she HELD them -- a nonsensical meaning.
Clearly, JC must have earned the records BEFORE she held them.
Eliminate B and C.

D: still so new such that many
Here, the usage of such is unidiomatic.
Correct idiom: so X that Y.
Eliminate D.

Quote:
Can I use "in which" to modify "time" as it show in choice D?
D: earned at a time in which
Here, the usage of at implies a specific MOMENT in time, as follows:
John arrived AT 5pm on Sunday.
in which cannot serve to refer to a specific moment in time.
Eliminate D.
in which may refer only to an EXTENDED period of time, as illustrated by the OA to SC70 in the OG12:
an age in which great ice sheets existed
Here, in which correctly refers to an extended period of time (an AGE).

Quote:
I think "earned" is not a pass participle to express the passive and then modify the speed records(this is the explanation on OG).
Generally, COMMA + VERBed serves as an ADJECTIVE modifying the NEAREST PRECEDING NOUN.
OA: seventeen official national and international speed records, earned at a time when aviation was still so new
Here, COMMA + earned is an adjective serving to modify speed records -- the nearest preceding noun -- conveying that the RECORDS were EARNED at a time when aviation was still so new.

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zoe Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
Joined
04 Apr 2016
Posted:
117 messages
1
Tue Jul 12, 2016 4:28 am
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Generally, COMMA + VERBed serves as an ADJECTIVE modifying the NEAREST PRECEDING NOUN.
OA: seventeen official national and international speed records, earned at a time when aviation was still so new
Here, COMMA + earned is an adjective serving to modify speed records -- the nearest preceding noun -- conveying that the RECORDS were EARNED at a time when aviation was still so new.
hi GuruNY,

Does comma + verbed only modifies the nearest preceding noun? would you please clarify other usage of "comma + verbed" and give me some examples?

another question, can "that" modify "time" ? only "when" can modify "time" ?

thanks a lot

have a nice day
>_~

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