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Endorphins

by ssgmatter » Tue Mar 30, 2010 7:09 am
Which of the following most logically completes the argument??

When people engage in activities that help others, their brain releases endorphins,
the brain's natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. It has
been suggested that regular release of endorphins increases people's longevity.
And a statistic on adults who regularly engage in volunteer work helping others
shows that they live longer, on average, than adults who do not volunteer. However,
that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not
boost longevity, because ________ .
A. in the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular
volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do.
B. the number of young adults who do regular volunteer work is on the increase
C. the feelings of well-being induced by endorphins can, at least for a time, mask
the symptoms of various conditions and diseases, provided the symptoms are
mild.
D. it is rare for a person to keep up a regular schedule of volunteer work
throughout his or her life.
E. some people find that keeping a commitment to do regular volunteer work
becomes a source of stress in their lives.
Please explain

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by aspirant2010 » Tue Mar 30, 2010 7:12 am
Hi,

Is the answer A......

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by ssgmatter » Tue Mar 30, 2010 7:43 am
Please explain with reasons...I will post the OA asap

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by Phirozz » Tue Mar 30, 2010 8:00 am
IMO C.

statistic shows that volunteer activity bosts longivity. But the last sentence says even if volunteering does not
boost longevity statistic is true. So we need to provide an alternative solution to why people with volunteerwork live longer and C explains the same.

By elimination also, C is clearly the answer.

A. in the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do. this is same as stastics and do not serve our purpose. eliminated
B. the number of young adults who do regular volunteer work is on the increase. we are not concerned about number of people. eliminated
C. the feelings of well-being induced by endorphins can, at least for a time, mask the symptoms of various conditions and diseases, provided the symptoms are mild. Correctly gives alternative solution for longer life
D. it is rare for a person to keep up a regular schedule of volunteer work throughout his or her life. irrelivant. eliminated
E. some people find that keeping a commitment to do regular volunteer work becomes a source of stress in their lives. again out of scope eliminated

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by kevincanspain » Wed Mar 31, 2010 12:12 pm
We have to identify the option that would reconcile the fact that volunteers live longer with the possibility that there is no cause-effect link between volunteering and longevity. Any difference between the volunteers and non-volunteers that could be related to longevity would suffice, and A certainly fills the bill.

Masking mild symptoms is not clearly related to longevity, so C doesn't make sense
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by ssgmatter » Sat Apr 03, 2010 9:01 pm
Thankyou kevin for shedding light on this one....Could you please explain the meaning of the line that says

'However, that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not
boost longevity, because'


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by ahsan.saeed » Sun Apr 04, 2010 9:01 am
After pondering around 3 minutes, I think I cracked it...

"However, that statistic would be what we would expect" ( difficult to understand) means despite the reason given -- let's forget it's even there -- there's another reason for the statistic and that is Women's live longer than Men "usually" and Women does more volunteer work; Age factor provides another reason.

IMO: A

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by pops » Sun Apr 04, 2010 10:13 pm
To complete the statement:
However, that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not boost longevity, because ________
now here the point is that the statistic would remain the same even if volunteering does not boost longevity because ??
A. Reason justifies the statistics
B. Even if number of young adults volunteering increase this does not increases the lonegivity
C. It is again going back to saying that volunteering boos longevity.. whoever selects this forgets an important point " However, " ... It would be like repeating same thing after However :-)
D. Even if it is rare, it is not increasing the life and hence the stats
E. same as D.

IMO A

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by ssgmatter » Tue Apr 06, 2010 7:25 am
@pops how would then statistic wourl remain the same...is it like a weakning question type....I am still not clear why A???Please elaborate guy
Option A says breaks the relation between the volunteeer work and longevity and consider some other factor (Can someone explain me what is that factor here??) to justify the statement However, that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not boost longevity, because ________

Please correct my understanding
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by pops » Tue Apr 06, 2010 11:36 pm
see the statement to be completed is:
even if volunteering does not boost longevity still the statistics that those who volunteer live longer will be as it is..
A: A says that more women volunteer and since women lives more than men so statistics of those who volunteer lives longer

B: now, even if number of young adults volunteering increases.. this doesnt show that life of volunteers has increased

C: endorphins mask the symptoms of various conditions and diseases.. only for mild symptoms.. this is again repeating the same thing that volunteering causes brain to release endorphins which lead to longer life... but the question itself is "even if volunteering doesnt increases life".. stats remain the same

D: it is rare to keep the schedule.. but how would that help in increasing the life of those who volunteer ?

E: same as D...

hope its clear ?

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by ssgmatter » Wed Apr 07, 2010 4:50 am
Thanks Pops I got this one now....It is actually a weakener question where it is breasking the cause and effect bet the volunteer and longevity and saying that the third reason which is the sex (Male & female) is the reason for longevity.....

Cheers!
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by iamcste » Thu Apr 08, 2010 5:41 am
Phil ..thanks for posting this lovely question ...I have many questions on this Cr that "haunt" me so better get rid of them

( irrespective of how stupid they may sound)

1. Usally, whenever we have a blank -----------------------------preceded by premise indicator such as "because" its supposed to be an assumption qtn but this one turned to be a weakning question.....my questions are how do we identify whether its an assumption or weakener question particularly when we have a blank? what words/indicators actually signals this question as a weakener question?

2. where is the conclusion of this question?

3. does the first two statements as mentioned below convey that regular volunteering leads to longevity? which statement is co-relation and which one is causation?

When people engage in activities that help others, their brain releases endorphins,
the brain’s natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. It has
been suggested that regular release of endorphins increases people’s longevity.

4. what is the role of the statistics statment "And a statistic on adults who regularly engage in volunteer work helping others shows that they live longer, on average, than adults who do not volunteer" in this question


5. did any one feel that statement A is actually a restatement of "a statistic on adults who regularly engage in volunteer work helping others shows that they live longer, on average, than adults who do not volunteer".....statistic statment talk about adults and option A talk about men and women ( which are adults too) so where is subtle difference that makes A as the correct answer....somehow I dont see this gender as an alternative reason to weaken this question? what am I missing?

6. Is B incorrect because the statment doesnt connect volunteering with longevity

7. Is C incorrect because we dont know how mask ing the symptom connect with longevity or do we think from this statement that hiding symptoms may somehow lead to shorter life i.e reduce longevity

8. In E, can we connect stress to longevity?

9. In D, Is it incorrect because we dont have connect between volunteering and longevity?

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by lunarpower » Fri Apr 09, 2010 12:36 am
basically, here's what going on here.

* the passage has noticed a CORRELATION between volunteerism and long life.

* the passage is questioning the notion that volunteerism CAUSES longer life.

takeaway:
in any passage that takes CORRELATION and concludes CAUSATION, that connection can be destroyed if either:
(1) the causation actually runs the other way around (i.e., the passage concludes that X causes Y, but in actuality Y causes X);
(2) the two correlated things are both results of some third, not considered, confounding factor.


as an example of (2):
there is a strong correlation between the # of churches and the # of murders in american cities: the more churches, the more murders.
however, there is no causation at work here (churches don't cause murders, and murders don't cause the building of churches), because both of these factors are caused by a third factor: the SIZE of the city. (IE larger cities have both more churches and more murders.)

--

in this case, the sex of the volunteers is the "third, not considered, thing" that destroys the hypothesis of causal connection between volunteerism and long life.

hope that helps.
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by lunarpower » Fri Apr 09, 2010 12:37 am
this is basically a "weaken the conclusion" question, in a heavy cloak.

notice the question prompt:
However, that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not boost longevity, because
this is functionally equivalent to "weaken the conclusion that volunteering boosts longevity".

notice that "weaken the conclusion" questions usually involve UNDERMINING ASSUMPTIONS.
in that light, most insights into "find the assumption" questions are also valuable in considering "weaken the conclusion" questions.
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by lunarpower » Fri Apr 09, 2010 12:39 am
oh, and, in case my posts didn't make it clear -- the answer here should be (a).
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