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2016 OG SC 95

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2016 OG SC 95

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Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.

  (A) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but

  (B) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by

  (C) caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by

  (D) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but

  (E) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by
My question is about and/or. The OG said "and identifies the combination of these three factors as a suggested cause of stomach ulcers, whereas or offers three individuals possibilities." Can someone explain this function? I think and should be replaced of or in negative sentence.
Thanks in advance!

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Crystal W wrote:
Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.

  (A) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but

  (B) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by

  (C) caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by

  (D) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but

  (E) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by
My question is about and/or. The OG said "and identifies the combination of these three factors as a suggested cause of stomach ulcers, whereas or offers three individuals possibilities." Can someone explain this function? I think and should be replaced of or in negative sentence.
Thanks in advance!
In the idiom not X but Y, X and Y must be PARALLEL FORMS.

A: not caused...but a bacterium
Here, caused (participle) and a bacterium (noun) are not parallel forms.
Eliminate A.

B: not caused...but are
Here, caused (participle) and are (verb) are not parallel forms.
Eliminate B.

D: not by...but a bacterium
Here, by (preposition) and a bacterium (noun) are not parallel forms.
Eliminate D.

E: not by...but are
Here, by (preposition) and are (verb) are not parallel forms.
Eliminate E.

The correct answer is C.

D and E: Ulcers are caused not by stress, alcohol and rich foods.
Here, the usage of and implies the following:
Stress, alcohol and rich foods do not work together AS A GROUP to cause ulcers.
However:
It is possible that stress ON ITS OWN causes ulcers.
It is possible that alcohol ON ITS OWN causes ulcers.
It is possible that rich foods ON THEIR OWN cause ulcers.
Not the intended intended meaning.
Eliminate D and E.

The intended meaning is conveyed by the OA:
Ulcers are caused not by stress, alcohol or rich foods.
Here, the usage of or implies the following:
Stress does not cause ulcers.
Alcohol does not cause ulcers.
Rich foods do not cause ulcers.

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Mitch Hunt
Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE
GMATGuruNY@gmail.com

If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon.

Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance.
For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com.
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GMATGuruNY wrote:
Crystal W wrote:
Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.

  (A) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but

  (B) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by

  (C) caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by

  (D) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but

  (E) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by
My question is about and/or. The OG said "and identifies the combination of these three factors as a suggested cause of stomach ulcers, whereas or offers three individuals possibilities." Can someone explain this function? I think and should be replaced of or in negative sentence.
Thanks in advance!
In the idiom not X but Y, X and Y must be PARALLEL FORMS.

A: not caused...but a bacterium
Here, caused (participle) and a bacterium (noun) are not parallel forms.
Eliminate A.

B: not caused...but are
Here, caused (participle) and are (verb) are not parallel forms.
Eliminate B.

D: not by...but a bacterium
Here, by (preposition) and a bacterium (noun) are not parallel forms.
Eliminate D.

E: not by...but are
Here, by (preposition) and are (verb) are not parallel forms.
Eliminate E.

The correct answer is C.

D and E: Ulcers are caused not by stress, alcohol and rich foods.
Here, the usage of and implies the following:
Stress, alcohol and rich foods do not work together AS A GROUP to cause ulcers.
However:
It is possible that stress ON ITS OWN causes ulcers.
It is possible that alcohol ON ITS OWN causes ulcers.
It is possible that rich foods ON THEIR OWN cause ulcers.
Not the intended intended meaning.
Eliminate D and E.

The intended meaning is conveyed by the OA:
Ulcers are caused not by stress, alcohol or rich foods.
Here, the usage of or implies the following:
Stress does not cause ulcers.
Alcohol does not cause ulcers.
Rich foods do not cause ulcers.
Thank you but I am still a little confused. Do you mean "or" means combination in the negative sentence? Also, According to the common sence, I believe the cause should be one of three not the combination.

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Crystal W wrote:
Thank you but I am still a little confused. Do you mean "or" means combination in the negative sentence? Also, According to the common sence, I believe the cause should be one of three not the combination.
To convey not x and not y, we say the following:
not x OR y.
The following is INCORRECT:
not x AND y.

The SC above intends to convey the following meaning:
Ulcers are not caused by stress, ulcers are not caused by alcohol, AND ulcers are not caused by rich foods.
To convey this meaning, we say the following:
Ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol OR rich foods.
The following is INCORRECT:
Ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol AND rich foods.
Eliminate D and E.

_________________
Mitch Hunt
Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE
GMATGuruNY@gmail.com

If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon.

Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance.
For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com.
Student Review #1
Student Review #2
Student Review #3

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