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1000SC #24 & #31

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1000SC #24 & #31

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A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

the answer is E.why not D???should'nt facing be parallel to rising ??

A star will compress itself into a whitedwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giantstage, depending on mass.

(A) A star will compress itself into awhite dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a redgiant stage, depending on mass.
(B) After passing through a red giantstage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, aneutron star, or a black hole.
(C) After passing through a red giantstage, a star's mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf,a neutron star, or a black hole.
(D) Mass determines whether a star,after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a whitedwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.
(E) The mass of a star, after passingthrough the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into awhite dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

correct answer is D.but i have been reading it from the begining that whether should only be used to choose between two options.for more than two options if should be used.

here there are three cases.which is correct in this case 'if' or 'whether'.

why B is wrong.

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For the first SC i think your doubt is 'why not C?'

(C) cannot be the answer as the idiomatic expression is 'elected to'
(D) cannot be the answer as 'facing' is not in parallel with 'retire '

for the second SC, the 'if' and 'whether' rule that you mentioned is a general rule that does hold true in most cases. However here, in option (C) modifier is not placed correctly ie . 'After passing through a red giantstage, a star's mass will determine'... the start's mass does not pass through the red giant stage... the entire star does

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saurabhbansal18 wrote:
A star will compress itself into a whitedwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.

(A) A star will compress itself into awhite dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a redgiant stage, depending on mass.
(B) After passing through a red giantstage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, aneutron star, or a black hole.
(C) After passing through a red giantstage, a star's mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf,a neutron star, or a black hole.
(D) Mass determines whether a star,after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a whitedwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.
(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

correct answer is D.but i have been reading it from the begining that whether should only be used to choose between two options.for more than two options if should be used.

here there are three cases.which is correct in this case 'if' or 'whether'.

why B is wrong.
very clever. very clever indeed.
why not B.

first of all let me tell you this is not whether / if problem;

you are asked to check whether the idioms are placed here properly to modify correct words.
Its a modifiers problem

If you see option B , C & E have subtle errors in placing the idioms they joins mass with the stage... that makes us think the mass of the red giant stage. (which is not the case)

D on the other hand has no such wrong modifiers
hope that helps

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saurabhbansal18 wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

the answer is E.why not D???should'nt facing be parallel to rising ??

YOu can bring down your options in many ways first: have/ had
down to C D E
2nd: correct parallel construction: retiring-facing / retire-face
down to C E

now correct idiom as inforeqd rightly point out is elected to
so cut it down to E.

bytheway parallel construction here is not facing & rising cost
its thread & the rising cost ....

& other parallel and important construction is retire & face..

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saurabhbansal18 wrote:
A star will compress itself into a whitedwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giantstage, depending on mass.

(A) A star will compress itself into awhite dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a redgiant stage, depending on mass.
(B) After passing through a red giantstage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, aneutron star, or a black hole.
(C) After passing through a red giantstage, a star's mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf,a neutron star, or a black hole.
(D) Mass determines whether a star,after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a whitedwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.
(E) The mass of a star, after passingthrough the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into awhite dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

correct answer is D.but i have been reading it from the begining that whether should only be used to choose between two options.for more than two options if should be used.

here there are three cases.which is correct in this case 'if' or 'whether'.

why B is wrong.
Adding some more explanation to this old thread:

(A)A star will compress itself into awhite dwarf, or a black hole after it passes through a redgiant stage, depending on mass...misplaced modifier....INCORRECT
(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.... misplaced modifier - After passing through a red giant stage... should have been closer to star!
(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star's mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole..... After passing.....stage is incorretly modifying star's mass instead of star;
(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. - mass is subject so if itself is for mass then it changes meaning of sentence Incorrect
Correct answer is D (though there is an error there as well (Mass of what??.. but D is the best option)

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Also, correct me if i am wrong but, Instead should be used to compare nouns, here we are comparing retire to face or retiring to facing, hence,...correct answer should be E

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Takeaway:

Have + ed + ing constructions are always wrong ( i think from spidy notes)

so, C is wrong.

||ism is b/w retire and face so choose E.

Instead vs Rather than - im not aware of such rule..anyone pls help !!

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There IS a crucial difference between "rather than" and "instead of" that you should know. "Rather than" is a conjunction and so can be followed by basically anything, whereas "instead of" is a (complex) preposition -- and a preposition should be followed only by a noun.

Now, the noun can be an "-ing" verb, known as a gerund. So, the sentences you quote are not grammatically wrong in this regard. However, the GMAT seems to prefer "rather than" in comparisons of verbs, because the parallelism is clearest:

(1) "I ski rather than snowboard." -- Correct.
(2) "I ski instead of snowboarding." -- Correct, but a 'little' less parallel, so (1) is slightly preferable.


Manhattan GMAT Staff - http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/rather-than-accept-the-conventional-wisdom-that-the-earth-t1177.html

Hope it helps Smile

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Option B says

After passing through a red giantstage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, aneutron star, or a black hole

Had it been

After passing through a red giantstage, a star, depending on its mass, will compress itself into a white dwarf, aneutron star, or a black hole

Then what would have been the correct choice?

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samyak wrote:
Option B says

After passing through a red giantstage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, aneutron star, or a black hole

Had it been

After passing through a red giantstage, a star, depending on its mass, will compress itself into a white dwarf, aneutron star, or a black hole

Then what would have been the correct choice?
if thats the case, then i believe gramatically both are correct, but we will still prefer Option D as in you structure above, you have created lot of fragmentation by adding commas.

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