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Register now and save up to $200 Available with Beat the GMAT members only code • Free Practice Test & Review How would you score if you took the GMAT Available with Beat the GMAT members only code ## Ryunosuke Akutagawa This topic has 7 expert replies and 16 member replies Goto page • 1, • 2 imskpwr Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 14 Sep 2011 Posted: 377 messages Followed by: 1 members Upvotes: 10 Target GMAT Score: 750 #### Ryunosuke Akutagawa Sun Jun 17, 2012 5:46 am Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. c Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and d Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as OG 13 Q79 C is correct, but Why is "d" incorrect. iMyself Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 13 Oct 2015 Posted: 53 messages Sat Oct 29, 2016 10:02 am Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to Hi Expert, Here is the correct sentence: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction. It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND. As the correct answer is C, China and Japan simultaneously modify ‘knowledge of the literatures of Europe'. If “China and Japan” simultaneously modify “knowledge of blah blah blah”, I can surely say that “China and Japan” is a modifier. So, there should have a COMMA after the word “Japan”, right? If there is NO COMMA after “Japan”, then “was instrumental in his development as a writer” will be the modifier along with “China and Japan”. If “China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer” is a modifier, then the “adverbial modifier (informing)” will not make the Cause and effect situation. So, how can we legitimate answer option C as correct? An Insight from Ron: x, y, and z are the list of 3 things. But, (x, y and z) are not the list of 3 things. Alternately, “y and z” simultaneously modify ‘X’ Thank you. Nina1987 Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 15 Dec 2015 Posted: 79 messages Followed by: 1 members GMAT Score: 750 Sun May 08, 2016 3:36 am @Mitch, @Brent and other experts: So is D incorrect simply cause we don't know if 'it' refers to knowledge or development? Thanks patanjali.purpose Legendary Member Joined 03 Apr 2011 Posted: 784 messages Followed by: 12 members Upvotes: 114 Sun Jun 17, 2012 7:29 am imskpwr wrote: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. c Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and d Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as OG 13 Q79 C is correct, but Why is "d" incorrect. Could you share the complete question pls. imskpwr Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 14 Sep 2011 Posted: 377 messages Followed by: 1 members Upvotes: 10 Target GMAT Score: 750 Sun Jun 17, 2012 11:22 pm patanjali.purpose wrote: Could you share the complete question pls. Just google it. jimmyjimmy Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 29 Apr 2012 Posted: 148 messages Upvotes: 8 Tue Jun 19, 2012 2:24 am Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to jimmyjimmy Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 29 Apr 2012 Posted: 148 messages Upvotes: 8 Tue Jun 19, 2012 2:34 am jimmyjimmy wrote: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to From parallelism, we have already eliminated (A) & (B), as discussed above. The subject of the sentence, “knowledge”, is singular, so the verb must be singular: “was”, not “were.” That eliminates (E). This leaves (C) and (D), which have many similarities. One difference is the ending. (C) ends simply with “and”, correctly completing the “both … and” structure. (D) avoids the word “both”, and instead ends with “as much as.” The phrase “as much as” is a comparative phrase -- “the teacher like me as much as she like you!” - but in this context, we are not performing a comparison. The two items in question are Akutagawa’s literary style and the content of his fiction. These both were informed by his vast knowledge of literature, but there’s nothing in the sentence that suggests a comparison is in order. (D) also has that awkward phrase “as it informed”, instead of the shorter and more direct “informing” in (C). For these reasons, (D) is incorrect, and (C) is by far the best answer choice.-mike (courtesy) imskpwr Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 14 Sep 2011 Posted: 377 messages Followed by: 1 members Upvotes: 10 Target GMAT Score: 750 Fri Jun 22, 2012 11:07 pm after a while, I found the real problem with D is that it unnecessarily causes Causation. Result(Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer), Cause(as it informed his literary style as much as )........INCORRECT MEANING. CAUSE(Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer), RESULT(informing both his literary style and )...............CORRECT MEANING. karthikgmat Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 09 Jul 2008 Posted: 172 messages Followed by: 1 members Upvotes: 3 Target GMAT Score: 750 GMAT Score: 610 Sat Jun 23, 2012 1:18 am D is changing meaning of the sentence. Yes causal relationship as imkspwr said. mv12 Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 28 Apr 2012 Posted: 150 messages Upvotes: 4 Sat Jun 23, 2012 11:11 am Ans should be C. GMAT Kolaveri Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 23 Mar 2012 Posted: 287 messages Followed by: 6 members Upvotes: 60 Target GMAT Score: 730 Sat Jun 23, 2012 7:20 pm Quote: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to U can narrow it down to C and D. Why C is correct? This is one of the most known format on the GMAT [ Clause , +ing form] In this form the ing form always modifies the clause preceding it. And this could be in any one of the below two formats The ing form of the verb either describes or presents the results of the clause preceding it. The company won the $$contract, making the company the largest software exporter. [result] The company won the$$$ contract, using the CEO's contacts.[describes]

Why is D wrong?
This has pronoun error as well as comparison error. I have highlighted this in the option.

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iMyself Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
Joined
13 Oct 2015
Posted:
53 messages
Fri Nov 04, 2016 8:14 am
Hi @Marty Murray,
Do you think that THIS sentence is correct? I think THIS sentence doesn't make any sense! Can I've your attention here? Thank you so much for your kind and nice response in another threads.

iMyself wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

Hi Expert,
Here is the correct sentence:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction.

It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND. As the correct answer is C, China and Japan simultaneously modify ‘knowledge of the literatures of Europe'. If “China and Japan” simultaneously modify “knowledge of blah blah blah”, I can surely say that “China and Japan” is a modifier. So, there should have a COMMA after the word “Japan”, right? If there is NO COMMA after “Japan”, then “was instrumental in his development as a writer” will be the modifier along with “China and Japan”. If “China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer” is a modifier, then the “adverbial modifier (informing)” will not make the Cause and effect situation. So, how can we legitimate answer option C as correct?

An Insight from Ron:
x, y, and z are the list of 3 things.
But, (x, y and z) are not the list of 3 things. Alternately, “y and z” simultaneously modify ‘X’

Thank you.

iMyself Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
Joined
13 Oct 2015
Posted:
53 messages
Tue Jan 24, 2017 4:19 pm
iMyself wrote:
Hi @Marty Murray,
Do you think that THIS sentence is correct? I think THIS sentence doesn't make any sense! Can I've your attention here? Thank you so much for your kind and nice response in another threads.

iMyself wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

Hi Expert,
Here is the correct sentence:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction.

It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND. As the correct answer is C, China and Japan simultaneously modify ‘knowledge of the literatures of Europe'. If “China and Japan” simultaneously modify “knowledge of blah blah blah”, I can surely say that “China and Japan” is a modifier. So, there should have a COMMA after the word “Japan”, right? If there is NO COMMA after “Japan”, then “was instrumental in his development as a writer” will be the modifier along with “China and Japan”. If “China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer” is a modifier, then the “adverbial modifier (informing)” will not make the Cause and effect situation. So, how can we legitimate answer option C as correct?

An Insight from Ron:
x, y, and z are the list of 3 things.
But, (x, y and z) are not the list of 3 things. Alternately, “y and z” simultaneously modify ‘X’

Thank you.
Hi Expert,
can i have a response in this question?
Thank you all...

### GMAT/MBA Expert

GMATGuruNY GMAT Instructor
Joined
25 May 2010
Posted:
14040 messages
Followed by:
1813 members
13060
GMAT Score:
790
Wed Jan 25, 2017 4:47 am
iMyself wrote:
It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND.
This is SC79 in the OG13.
In my edition of the OG13, a comma appears after China, as follows:

Quote:
Ryonosuke Akutagawa's knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China, and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

A) that of Japan were instrumental in his
development as a writer, informing his literary
style as much as
(B) that of Japan was instrumental in his
development as a writer, and it informed both
his literary style as well as
(C) Japan was instrumental in his development as a
writer, informing both his literary style and
(D) Japan was instrumental in his development as a
writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
(E) Japan were instrumental in his development as
a writer, informing both his literary style in
In A and E, were (plural) does not agree with knowledge (singular).

as well as is a PREPOSITION.
It cannot serve as a substitute for and, which is a CONJUNCTION.
B: both his literary style as well as the content
Here, as well as incorrectly serves as a substitute for and.
Incorrect: both X as well as Y
Correct: both X and Y
Eliminate B.

D: Ryonosuke Akutagawa's knowledge...was instrumental in his development, as it informed his literary style
Here, it is not crystal clear whether it serves to refer to knowledge or to development.
Since C avoids this issue and is free of errors, eliminate D and choose C.

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Last edited by GMATGuruNY on Wed Jan 25, 2017 8:02 am; edited 1 time in total

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### GMAT/MBA Expert

Ali Tariq GMAT Instructor
Joined
09 Nov 2016
Posted:
263 messages
Followed by:
10 members
87
Wed Jan 25, 2017 7:14 am
Quote:
Ryonosuke Akutagawa's knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China, and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

A) that of Japan were instrumental in his
development as a writer, informing his literary
style as much as
(B) that of Japan was instrumental in his
development as a writer, and it informed both
his literary style as well as
(C) Japan was instrumental in his development as a
writer, informing both his literary style and
(D) Japan was instrumental in his development as a
writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
(E) Japan were instrumental in his development as
a writer, informing both his literary style in
Major issue with D is not the pronoun ambiguity but the ambiguity in comparison.
in GMAT SC pronoun ambiguity is not an issue, If you can tell the referent of a pronoun from context.
Ambiguity in comparison is.

Because of ambiguity in comparison, two interpretations are possible.
As the comparison is not crystal clear in D, cross it out.

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