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Ryunosuke Akutagawa

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GMAC typically kills the ambiguity issue in comparisons by repeating an appropriate preposition or verb.

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iMyself wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

Hi Expert,
Here is the correct sentence:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction.

It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND. As the correct answer is C, China and Japan simultaneously modify ‘knowledge of the literatures of Europe'. If “China and Japan” simultaneously modify “knowledge of blah blah blah”, I can surely say that “China and Japan” is a modifier. So, there should have a COMMA after the word “Japan”, right? If there is NO COMMA after “Japan”, then “was instrumental in his development as a writer” will be the modifier along with “China and Japan”. If “China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer” is a modifier, then the “adverbial modifier (informing)” will not make the Cause and effect situation. So, how can we legitimate answer option C as correct?

An Insight from Ron:
x, y, and z are the list of 3 things.
But, (x, y and z) are not the list of 3 things. Alternately, “y and z” simultaneously modify ‘X’

Thank you.
There should have been comma before and as it is list of three regions.
Editing error on part of GMAC.
So don't pick any insight from this SC regarding comma thing.

It is not the first instance of poor editing in non underlined portion.

The second interpretation of China and Japan being in apposition with Europe is straightaway incorrect.

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It is an OG 13 question, so GMAC will not take responsibilty of poor editing as it currently does not sale this edition.

Mail the council and following will be its typical response( which is appropriate as it leaves no ambiguity)

The OG 13 is no longer supported by The Graduate Management Admission Council as it is an older version and is not available for sale through mba.com/store.

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
iMyself wrote:
It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND.
This is SC79 in the OG13.
In my edition of the OG13, a comma appears after China, as follows:

Quote:
Ryonosuke Akutagawa's knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China, and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

A) that of Japan were instrumental in his
development as a writer, informing his literary
style as much as
(B) that of Japan was instrumental in his
development as a writer, and it informed both
his literary style as well as
(C) Japan was instrumental in his development as a
writer, informing both his literary style and
(D) Japan was instrumental in his development as a
writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
(E) Japan were instrumental in his development as
a writer, informing both his literary style in
addition to
In A and E, were (plural) does not agree with knowledge (singular).

as well as is a PREPOSITION.
It cannot serve as a substitute for and, which is a CONJUNCTION.
B: both his literary style as well as the content
Here, as well as incorrectly serves as a substitute for and.
Incorrect: both X as well as Y
Correct: both X and Y
Eliminate B.

D: Ryonosuke Akutagawa's knowledge...was instrumental in his development, as it informed his literary style
Here, it is not crystal clear whether it serves to refer to knowledge or to development.
Since C avoids this issue and is free of errors, eliminate D and choose C.

The correct answer is C.
Thank you. Unfortunately, your response does not fit with my query. Can you please see my post again?

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Ali Tariq wrote:
iMyself wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

Hi Expert,
Here is the correct sentence:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction.

It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND. As the correct answer is C, China and Japan simultaneously modify ‘knowledge of the literatures of Europe'. If “China and Japan” simultaneously modify “knowledge of blah blah blah”, I can surely say that “China and Japan” is a modifier. So, there should have a COMMA after the word “Japan”, right? If there is NO COMMA after “Japan”, then “was instrumental in his development as a writer” will be the modifier along with “China and Japan”. If “China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer” is a modifier, then the “adverbial modifier (informing)” will not make the Cause and effect situation. So, how can we legitimate answer option C as correct?

An Insight from Ron:
x, y, and z are the list of 3 things.
But, (x, y and z) are not the list of 3 things. Alternately, “y and z” simultaneously modify ‘X’

Thank you.
There should have been comma before and as it is list of three regions.
Editing error on part of GMAC.
So don't pick any insight from this SC regarding comma thing.

It is not the first instance of poor editing in non underlined portion.

The second interpretation of China and Japan being in apposition with Europe is straightaway incorrect.
Thank you for your kind response. Are you sure that it is the mistake of GMAC? Can you clarify a bit brother? From your profile, it is seen that you're a GMAT instructor of Pakistan. May I know your verbal and Quant score with Total score?
Thank you once again...

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Quote:
Are you sure that it is the mistake of GMAC?
If copied ad verbatim, then it surely is an editing error.


I am GMAT SC tutor.
All my replies here in BTG are in Sentence Correction section.
On a relative note, I am also a founder of a just launched small gmat prep startup out of Lahore called prepvista, which offers GMAT SC course in Hindi/urdu and in English in parallel.

The SC course our startup offers contains 55+ hours of on deman video content, in which each and every aspect of GMAT SC has been meticulously taken care of. To the best of my knowledge, the quantitative and qualitative aspect of this course is unprecedented in world.

However, claims alone cannot help us built credibility on the top of which any business can be built.
Hollow claims not backed by credibility are short lived; infact this kind of strategy is tentamount to termination.
Credibility about the fact that we actually do know the SC game can only be built by answering querries on the forum such as this one.
If replies of any tutor do not hold substance, they will instantly be challanged by other tutors/prep company representatives. Make sense?

check out our website www.prepvista.com ,which surely addresses the SC pain like a pro for test takers in our region of the world.

Do let me know if i can be of any help.

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Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
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Ali Tariq wrote:
Quote:
Are you sure that it is the mistake of GMAC?
If copied ad verbatim, then it surely is an editing error.


I am GMAT SC tutor.
All my replies here in BTG are in Sentence Correction section.
On a relative note, I am also a founder of a just launched small gmat prep startup out of Lahore called prepvista, which offers GMAT SC course in Hindi/urdu and in English in parallel.

The SC course our startup offers contains 55+ hours of on deman video content, in which each and every aspect of GMAT SC has been meticulously taken care of. To the best of my knowledge, the quantitative and qualitative aspect of this course is unprecedented in world.

However, claims alone cannot help us built credibility on the top of which any business can be built.
Hollow claims not backed by credibility are short lived; infact this kind of strategy is tentamount to termination.
Credibility about the fact that we actually do know the SC game can only be built by answering querries on the forum such as this one.
If replies of any tutor do not hold substance, they will instantly be challanged by other tutors/prep company representatives. Make sense?

check out our website www.prepvista.com ,which surely addresses the SC pain like a pro for test takers in our region of the world.

Do let me know if i can be of any help.
Perfectly make sense brother. But, Many expert say that there is NO need of COMMA before AND to legitimate the sentence though they're the list of 3 regions!
Thank you brother for your help.

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imskpwr wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

c Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as

As OG states, in addition to comparison ambiguity, does D imply that the act of informing Ryunosuke's 'literary style as much as the content of his fiction' precedes action of the main clause ?

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gocoder wrote:
does D imply that the act of informing Ryunosuke's 'literary style as much as the content of his fiction' precedes action of the main clause ?
Yes!
the athletes were free to compete again, as the case against them was not proved--> logical sequence.

as the case against the athletes was not proved, they were free to compete again, --> logical sequence.

As the athletes were free to compete again, the case against them was not proved--> illogical sequence.

The case against the atheletes was not proved, as they were free to compete again--> illogical sequence.

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
Ryonosuke Akutagawa's knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China, and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

(C) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
(D) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as

D: Ryonosuke Akutagawa's knowledge...was instrumental in his development, as it informed his literary style
Here, it is not crystal clear whether it serves to refer to knowledge or to development.
Since C avoids this issue and is free of errors, eliminate D and choose C.

The correct answer is C.
Dear Mitch,
I'm confused about choices C & D

1-Can choice D ruled out because of word 'as'? What does 'as' mean in this sentence? if 'as' means 'in the same time' then I think it is correct as it played the same role of VERBing modifier of choice C that show CONCURRENT action about knowledge effect. But if 'as' 'because' so it is wrong as the sentence from the meaning is not cause and effect. Is my reasoning above valid?

2- In choice C, can VERBing modifiers modify verb to be in the previous sentence?

Thanks

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Generally, COMMA + as-clause implies that the clause after as LEADS to the preceding clause, with the result that the two clauses happen concurrently.
An OA in GMATPrep:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel have greatly downsized.
Here, the as-clause in red (companies have downsized) LEADS to the preceding clause in blue (the steel industry has changed), with the result that the two clauses happen concurrently.

Generally, COMMA + VERBing implies an action that is BROUGHT ABOUT by the preceding clause, with the result that the VERBing action and the preceding clause happen concurrently.
SC84 in the OG12:
Five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer, bringing to 34 the number of wild birds successfully raised.
Here, the VERBing action in red (bringing to 34 the number of birds) is BROUGHT ABOUT by the preceding clause in blue (five eagles left their nests), with the result that the VERBing action and the preceding clause happen concurrently.

Mo2men wrote:
Dear Mitch,
I'm confused about choices C & D

1-Can choice D ruled out because of word 'as'? What does 'as' mean in this sentence? if 'as' means 'in the same time' then I think it is correct as it played the same role of VERBing modifier of choice C that show CONCURRENT action about knowledge effect. But if 'as' 'because' so it is wrong as the sentence from the meaning is not cause and effect. Is my reasoning above valid?
OA: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction .
Here, the implication is that the VERBing action in red was BROUGHT ABOUT by the preceding clause in blue.
This sequence makes sense, implying that the literary style RESULTED FROM the knowledge.

D: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style.
Here, the implication is that the as-clause in red LED to the preceding clause in blue.
This sequence is illogical, implying that the literary style LED to the knowledge.
Eliminate D.

Quote:
In choice C, can VERBing modifiers modify verb to be in the previous sentence?

Thanks
Generally, COMMA + VERBing modifies the nearest preceding action or state-of-being and the agent of this action or state-of-being.
OA: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction.
Here, the VERBing modifier in red serves to modify both was (expressing HOW the knowledge was instrumental) and knowledge (since the act of informing is attributed to the knowledge).

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
Generally, COMMA + as-clause implies that the clause after as LEADS to the preceding clause, with the result that the two clauses happen concurrently.
An OA in GMATPrep:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel have greatly downsized.
Here, the as-clause in red (companies have downsized) LEADS to the preceding clause in blue (the steel industry has changed), with the result that the two clauses happen concurrently.
Thanks a lot Mitch,

Another question question based on above explanation.

When do use work "LEADS" above, do you suggest that 'as' any cause-effect relationship but concurrently? If it is cause-effect relationship, does it play the role of 'because'? I think 'because' does not provide CONCURRENT relationship with preceding clause, right?

Thanks in advance

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Mo2men wrote:
Thanks a lot Mitch,

Another question question based on above explanation.

When do use work "LEADS" above, do you suggest that 'as' any cause-effect relationship but concurrently? If it is cause-effect relationship, does it play the role of 'because'? I think 'because' does not provide CONCURRENT relationship with preceding clause, right?

Thanks in advance
X led to Y implies that X did not directly cause Y but that X was a factor that helped to yield Y.
SC755 in the OG17:
An inability to adapt led to their extinction.
Here, an inability to adapt did not directly cause the extinction but was a factor that helped to yield the extinction.

A cause and effect can be concurrent events.
John wins every match because he is fast.
Here, John is fast when he wins every match, so the two events are concurrent.

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
Mo2men wrote:
Thanks a lot Mitch,

Another question question based on above explanation.

When do use work "LEADS" above, do you suggest that 'as' any cause-effect relationship but concurrently? If it is cause-effect relationship, does it play the role of 'because'? I think 'because' does not provide CONCURRENT relationship with preceding clause, right?

Thanks in advance
X led to Y implies that X did not directly cause Y but that X was a factor that helped to yield Y.
SC755 in the OG17:
An inability to adapt led to their extinction.
Here, an inability to adapt did not directly cause the extinction but was a factor that helped to yield the extinction.

A cause and effect can be concurrent events.
John wins every match because he is fast.
Here, John is fast when he wins every match, so the two events are concurrent.
Is valid to reject choice D based on the following analysis:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction (informed his literary style)
or
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as (it informed ) the content of his fiction .

So we have 2 interpretations which leads to reject D.

Is the reasoning above correct?

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Mo2men wrote:
Is valid to reject choice D based on the following analysis:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction (informed his literary style)
or
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as (it informed ) the content of his fiction .

So we have 2 interpretations which leads to reject D.

Is the reasoning above correct?
Nicely done!
Because the comparison in D allows for more than one logical interpretation, eliminate D.
In fact, the ambiguity cited above is the most compelling reason to eliminate D.

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