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## Prior to 1965 geologists assumed.

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### Prior to 1965 geologists assumed.

by rx_11 » Tue Nov 30, 2010 9:11 am
Prior to 1965 geologists assumed
that the two giant rock plates meeting at
the San Andreas Fault generate heat
Line through friction as they grind past each
(5) other, but in 1965 Henyey found that
temperatures in drill holes near the
fault were not as elevated as had
been expected. Some geologists
wondered whether the absence of
(10) friction-generated heat could be
explained by the kinds of rock com-
posing the fault. Geologists' pre-1965
assumptions concerning heat gen-
erated in the fault were based on
(15) calculations about common varieties of
rocks, such as limestone and granite;
but "weaker" materials, such as clays,
(20) normal conditions, rocks composed of
clay produce far less friction than do
other rock types.
In 1992 Byerlee tested whether
these materials would produce friction
(25) 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth's
surface. Byerlee found that when clay
samples were subjected to the thou-
sands of atmospheres of pressure
they would encounter deep inside the
(30) Earth, they produced as much friction
as was produced by other rock types.
The harder rocks push against each
other, the hotter they become; in other
words, pressure itself, not only the
(35) rocks' properties, affects frictional
heating. Geologists therefore won-
dered whether the friction between the
plates was being reduced by pockets
of pressurized water within the fault that
push the plates away from each other

1.The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey's findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?

A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey's findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey's explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey's findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee's 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey's findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey's findings using more recent experimental methods.

2.The passage is primarily concerned with

A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

OA is A B
Hi, guys, try this passage please. I do not very much understand why the first question's answer is A. I think the scientists were just wondering something, not formulate a DEFINITIVE explanation.. What do you think?[/spoiler]

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by beat_gmat_09 » Tue Nov 30, 2010 9:45 am
rx_11 wrote:Prior to 1965 geologists assumed
that the two giant rock plates meeting at
the San Andreas Fault generate heat
Line through friction as they grind past each
(5) other, but in 1965 Henyey found that
temperatures in drill holes near the
fault were not as elevated as had
been expected. Some geologists
wondered whether the absence of
(10) friction-generated heat could be
explained by the kinds of rock com-
posing the fault. Geologists' pre-1965
assumptions concerning heat gen-
erated in the fault were based on
(15) calculations about common varieties of
rocks, such as limestone and granite;
but "weaker" materials, such as clays,
(20) normal conditions, rocks composed of
clay produce far less friction than do
other rock types.
In 1992 Byerlee tested whether
these materials would produce friction
(25) 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth's
surface. Byerlee found that when clay
samples were subjected to the thou-
sands of atmospheres of pressure
they would encounter deep inside the
(30) Earth, they produced as much friction
as was produced by other rock types.
The harder rocks push against each
other, the hotter they become; in other
words, pressure itself, not only the
(35) rocks' properties, affects frictional
heating. Geologists therefore won-
dered whether the friction between the
plates was being reduced by pockets
of pressurized water within the fault that
push the plates away from each other

1.The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey's findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?

A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey's findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey's explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey's findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee's 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey's findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey's findings using more recent experimental methods.

2.The passage is primarily concerned with

A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

OA is A B
Hi, guys, try this passage please. I do not very much understand why the first question's answer is A. I think the scientists were just wondering something, not formulate a DEFINITIVE explanation.. What do you think?[/spoiler]
The first question was tough for me, but POE works here.
1) Prior 1965 assumption, followed by contradiction by Henyey. Scientists wonder ....
2) 1922 old study, different rock types, clay and testing deep below....
After this study is described the last sentence says that Geologists therefore wonder....

Q1)
A - Not sure, keep.
B - Nothing about modification is mentioned in the 1965's study/research.
D - This was a bit tough. Ok, 1st sentence tells that there was some assumption prior to 1965(Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that....... ), this sentence is followed by a counter statement (, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures................) so this Henyey's study is not in the support of that assumption. Eliminate this option.
E - Nothing about more recent experiments is mentioned, two experiments, one in 1922 one in 1965, thats all. Eliminate.
A remains. ("Unexpected" findings and "wonder" words support this option)

Q2) Henyey's experiments ->> fault were not as elevated as had been expected............
The word "wonder" appear in the start and end of the passage, the last sentence too uses the word "wonder", it indicates that something is not clear/unexpected.
B fits.
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by shovan85 » Tue Nov 30, 2010 9:58 am
rx_11 wrote:Prior to 1965 geologists assumed
that the two giant rock plates meeting at
the San Andreas Fault generate heat
Line through friction as they grind past each
(5) other, but in 1965 Henyey found that
temperatures in drill holes near the
fault were not as elevated as had
been expected. Some geologists
wondered whether the
absence of
(10) friction-generated heat could be
explained by the kinds of rock com-
posing the fault. Geologists' pre-1965
assumptions concerning heat gen-
erated in the fault were based on
(15) calculations about common varieties of
rocks, such as limestone and granite;
but "weaker" materials, such as clays,
(20) normal conditions, rocks composed of
clay produce far less friction than do
other rock types.
In 1992 Byerlee tested whether
these materials would produce friction
(25) 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth's
surface. Byerlee found that when clay
samples were subjected to the thou-
sands of atmospheres of pressure
they would encounter deep inside the
(30) Earth, they produced as much friction
as was produced by other rock types.
The harder rocks push against each
other, the hotter they become; in other
words, pressure itself, not only the
(35) rocks' properties, affects frictional
heating. Geologists therefore won-
dered whether the
friction between the
plates was being reduced by pockets
of pressurized water within the fault that
push the plates away from each other.
1.The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey's findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?

A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey's findings.
Left after Process of Elimination.

B. Recent research suggests that Henyey's explanation for the findings should be modified.
There is no recent research mentioned in the passage. No suggestions also made in the passage for any modification.

C.Henyey's findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee's 1992 experiment.
After Henyey's findings Geologists thought that friction generated heat is absent. This was undermined by Byerlee's experiment. But Byerlee's experiment does not undermine the findings of Henyey. Thus, no recalculation required.

D.Henyey's findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
Line 5 starts with BUT. "....but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected." So, against the idea.

E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey's findings using more recent experimental methods.
No experimental method mentioned.
rx_11 wrote: Hi, guys, try this passage please. I do not very much understand why the first question's answer is A. I think the scientists were just wondering something, not formulate a DEFINITIVE explanation.. What do you think?
See the bold part in the passage. I agree you knew where to look.

Now, see the option A.

Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey's findings.

You agree scientists are yet to formulate as they are still wondering. As per the word "definitive explanation", it is just a requirement for a scientist. When a scientist claims something he/she must have a definitive explanation to support his claim. That's why it is called research, is not it?

So got stuck at the wrong word . This is because GMAT wants us to prove that option 100% correct and we try to prove each and every word of the sentence. In this context each and every word of option A is correct but the usage of word definitive (such a strong word) makes us skeptical.

Hope this helps!!

I don't think second one would have been an issue. Let me know if is there any, Beat_gmat_09's explanation is quite well.
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by atulmangal » Thu Jun 09, 2011 7:52 am
tough one...struggled with the answer choices in this passage...

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by sujamait » Mon Oct 10, 2011 11:49 pm
got both rite A,B

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by JS_2 » Tue Oct 11, 2011 6:48 am
The Ans for Q1 is A
1.The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey's findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?

A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey's findings.
:
Henyey's only gave his findings and never tried to explain or find out why the temperature is lower than expected.

B.Recent research suggests that Henyey's explanation for the findings should be modified.
:As henyey didn't explain anything this is an incorrect choice.

C.Henyey's findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee's 1992 experiment.
Byerlee only tried to give the explanation by trying to find out what were the rocks composed of.
and never tried to back and recalculate the temperatures
D.Henyey's findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
This is opposite to what is mentioned in the passage.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey's findings using more recent experimental methods.
Scientists are trying to explain reason behind unexpected findings by Henyey which means they accept Henyey's findings and so they are not duplicating them

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by prashant misra » Sun Oct 16, 2011 4:37 am
the answer to this question is option A

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by ArunangsuSahu » Fri Dec 30, 2011 12:40 pm
For Question 1 We don't find any conclusion about Henry's hypothesis which ends abruptly. (D) is a close guess but wrong assumption

For Question 2 it is obviously (b)..self-explanatory

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by mourinhogmat1 » Sat Jan 14, 2012 7:02 pm
I went with D and B. A tough question.
In D: What was the long held assumption? Heat is generated when rocks move past one another. But temp was not high. So, no way this finding can support the assumption. In fact it disproved or rather weakened it.

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by ArunangsuSahu » Sun Jan 15, 2012 8:59 am
No definite conclusion about Henry's Hypothesis

So for Question 1: (A) is the answer

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by Lifetron » Sun Jul 22, 2012 11:39 pm
The scientists didn't formulate a DEFINITIVE explanation yet... They are trying to do it !

The answer should be A for sure !

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by Ganesh hatwar » Sun Aug 12, 2012 11:29 pm
rx_11 wrote:Prior to 1965 geologists assumed
that the two giant rock plates meeting at
the San Andreas Fault generate heat
Line through friction as they grind past each
(5) other, but in 1965 Henyey found that
temperatures in drill holes near the
fault were not as elevated as had
been expected. Some geologists
wondered whether the absence of
(10) friction-generated heat could be
explained by the kinds of rock com-
posing the fault. Geologists' pre-1965
assumptions concerning heat gen-
erated in the fault were based on
(15) calculations about common varieties of
rocks, such as limestone and granite;
but "weaker" materials, such as clays,
(20) normal conditions, rocks composed of
clay produce far less friction than do
other rock types.
In 1992 Byerlee tested whether
these materials would produce friction
(25) 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth's
surface. Byerlee found that when clay
samples were subjected to the thou-
sands of atmospheres of pressure
they would encounter deep inside the
(30) Earth, they produced as much friction
as was produced by other rock types.
The harder rocks push against each
other, the hotter they become; in other
words, pressure itself, not only the
(35) rocks' properties, affects frictional
heating. Geologists therefore won-
dered whether the friction between the
plates was being reduced by pockets
of pressurized water within the fault that
push the plates away from each other

1.The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey's findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?

A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey's findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey's explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey's findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee's 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey's findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey's findings using more recent experimental methods.

2.The passage is primarily concerned with

A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

OA is A B
Hi, guys, try this passage please. I do not very much understand why the first question's answer is A. I think the scientists were just wondering something, not formulate a DEFINITIVE explanation.. What do you think?[/spoiler]
Got both wrong very tough passage

can anyone tell me plz what difficulty it is of

Even though passage was not to understand but choices were for sure

But found good explations

Thanks for Good explantions

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by mparakala » Fri Dec 07, 2012 8:43 pm
Q1. A

Q2. B
do not get confused by the term "assumption" in option C. Though they are assuming, the entire process is not an experiment. The wording is really important.
B is the ans!

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by srst » Sun Mar 31, 2013 10:38 am
I got it right!! cant believe it *wiping off tears*!!!!!!

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by \'manpreet singh » Wed Apr 10, 2013 8:18 pm
Good Question, keep posting such tricky questions, got first wrong marked D, and second right.
Need to avoid silly mistakes will reading.