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Hot sauce

This topic has 8 expert replies and 21 member replies
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ayushiiitm Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Post Thu Jun 17, 2010 12:45 pm
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, hot sauces
stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, just as exercise does, and these
have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's.

A. hot sauces stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, just as exercise does,
and these have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's

The correct answer, but the GMAT writers typically use the pronoun these not on its own but as the modifier of a noun, as in these endorphins. (The GMAT writers must hate when Paris Hilton says "That's hot!". She could be referring to anything.)

B. hot sauces stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, like exercise, and they
have a pain-relieving effect that is like morphine

misplaced modifier: exercise is too far from hot sauces, to which it is being compared
incorrect comparison: a pain relieving effect that is like morphine is comparing apples to oranges: the pain relieving effect is not like morphine. The pain-relieving effect of endorphins is like the pain-relieving effect of morphine.
pronoun ambiguity: they could be referring to the hot sauces or to the endorphins


C. hot sauces and exercise both stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, and
they have a pain-relieving effect like morphine

misplaced modifier: Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, hot sauces and exercise implies that exercise adds complementary flavors to foods. (Funny, my run this morning didn't seem to affect my Cheerios one way or the other.)
pronoun ambiguity: does they refer only to hot sauces or both to hot sauces AND to exercise?


D. the release of endorphins in the brain is stimulated both by hot sauces and
exercise, and they have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's

avoid passive voice: hot sauces stimulate is better than stimulated by hot sauces
parallelism: the GMAT writers likely would prefer both by hot sauces and BY exercise
pronoun ambiguity: they could be referring to the hot sauces or to the endorphins


E. the release of endorphins in the brain is stimulated by hot sauces, just as with
exercise, and these have a pain-relieving effect like that of morphine

misplaced modifier: what exactly is with exercise?
pronoun ambiguity: these is closer to hot sauces, suggesting that it's the hot sauces and not the endorphins that have the pain-relieving effect.
Why cant these be referring to sauces?

Any take on this?

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Post Thu Jun 17, 2010 12:54 pm
Quote:
Why cant these be referring to sauces?

Any take on this?
And therein lies the problem! The GMAT writers typically will only use these only as a modifier, as in these endorphins or these hot sauces. Used by itself, the pronoun these is ambiguous: in answer choice E, these could be referring either to the endorphins or to the hot sauces.

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ayushiiitm Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Post Thu Jun 17, 2010 2:49 pm
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Quote:
Why cant these be referring to sauces?

Any take on this?
And therein lies the problem! The GMAT writers typically will only use these only as a modifier, as in these endorphins or these hot sauces. Used by itself, the pronoun these is ambiguous: in answer choice E, these could be referring either to the endorphins or to the hot sauces.
Hi GMAT Guru,

Can u please elaborate on the rule.
I didn't understand, why 'these' does not case a problem in A

What is meant, when you say "Used by itself, the pronoun these is ambiguous"

Looking forward to your explanation
Thanks

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Post Fri Jun 18, 2010 9:04 am
Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, hot sauces
stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, just as exercise does, and these
have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's.


A. hot sauces stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, just as exercise does,
and these have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's

If the intended meaning were that the hot sauces have a pain-relieving effect, the pronoun these would be unnecessary:

Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, hot sauces stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, just as exercise does, and have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's.

The pronoun these is included in order to make clear that the endorphins have the pain-relieving effect.


E. the release of endorphins in the brain is stimulated by hot sauces, just as with
exercise, and these have a pain-relieving effect like that of morphine

If we interpret that these refers to the hot sauces, we don't preserve the intended meaning of the sentence. The intended meaning is that the endorphins have the pain-relieving effect.

On the GMAT, in order to avert ambiguity, the writers generally will not use the pronoun these on its own:

These have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's. (What exactly is having the pain-relieving effect?)

Instead, the writers prefer to use these as a modifier:

These endorphins have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's.

Then there is no doubt what these is referring to.

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ayushiiitm Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Post Sat Jun 19, 2010 12:00 pm
Thanks Gmat Guru for clarification.

A very nice reply indeed.

and great work kvcpk for keeping on with your doubt....thats the way we improve

and thanks Mohit and Shweta ....for adding to the confusion
Your explanations to KVCPK just didnt made any sense....apart from backtracking to the answers

Neways......everybody has a different process for learning so no complaints here !!
Just a suggestion, that probably it would be better if we all only put right concepts here (concepts we are sure about), so that nobody takes home wrong concepts

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ayushiiitm Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Post Sat Jun 19, 2010 12:15 pm
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, hot sauces
stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, just as exercise does, and these
have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's.


A. hot sauces stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, just as exercise does,
and these have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's

If the intended meaning were that the hot sauces have a pain-relieving effect, the pronoun these would be unnecessary:

Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, hot sauces stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, just as exercise does, and have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's.

The pronoun these is included in order to make clear that the endorphins have the pain-relieving effect.


E. the release of endorphins in the brain is stimulated by hot sauces, just as with
exercise, and these have a pain-relieving effect like that of morphine

If we interpret that these refers to the hot sauces, we don't preserve the intended meaning of the sentence. The intended meaning is that the endorphins have the pain-relieving effect.

On the GMAT, in order to avert ambiguity, the writers generally will not use the pronoun these on its own:

These have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's. (What exactly is having the pain-relieving effect?)

Instead, the writers prefer to use these as a modifier:

These endorphins have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's.

Then there is no doubt what these is referring to.
@GMATGuru

Are there more pronouns like 'these'

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kevincanspain GMAT Instructor
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Post Sat Jun 19, 2010 12:21 pm
A correctly uses these instead of they. We need a pronoun that refers to endorphins and not to hot sauces, and 'they' tends to refer to a previously mentioned subject

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kvcpk Legendary Member
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Post Sat Jun 19, 2010 9:03 pm
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Instead, the writers prefer to use these as a modifier:

These endorphins have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's.

Then there is no doubt what these is referring to.
Great Explanation.. Thanks very much Mitch!! It makes sense now..

Quote:
and great work kvcpk for keeping on with your doubt....thats the way we improve
@ayushiiitm - Glad to hear that...... I agree with you that the posts should contain the concepts that they are sure about.. Atleast an IMO tag will help..

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Post Sun Jun 20, 2010 6:56 am
ayushiiitm wrote:
to avert ambiguity, the writers generally will not use the pronoun these on its own:

These have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's. (What exactly is having the pain-relieving effect?)

Instead, the writers prefer to use these as a modifier:

These endorphins have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's.

Then there is no doubt what these is referring to.

@GMATGuru

Are there more pronouns like 'these'
The GMAT writers generally will use the pronouns this, that, these, and those only as modifiers.

Paris Hilton had a famous catch phrase: "That's hot!" What exactly did she think was hot? No way to tell. To please the GMAT writers, Paris would have to say "That guy in the speedo is hot!". We might not agree, but at least then we'd know what she was referring to.

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Post Tue Jun 22, 2010 10:34 am
GMATGuruNY wrote:
ayushiiitm wrote:
to avert ambiguity, the writers generally will not use the pronoun these on its own:

These have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's. (What exactly is having the pain-relieving effect?)

Instead, the writers prefer to use these as a modifier:

These endorphins have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's.

Then there is no doubt what these is referring to.

@GMATGuru

Are there more pronouns like 'these'
The GMAT writers generally will use the pronouns this, that, these, and those only as modifiers.

Paris Hilton had a famous catch phrase: "That's hot!" What exactly did she think was hot? No way to tell. To please the GMAT writers, Paris would have to say "That guy in the speedo is hot!". We might not agree, but at least then we'd know what she was referring to.
An exception to the advice given above:

The GMAT writers will use the pronouns that and those in order to make parallel comparisons. In these cases, the pronouns do not have to be used as modifiers.

The grammar tested on the GMAT is like that tested on the SAT, but the sentences on the GMAT are more complex. (The pronoun that is standing in for the grammar.)

The grammatical rules followed on the GMAT are different from those followed in the real world. (The pronoun those is standing in for the grammatical rules.)

In the examples above, the pronouns that and those are fine because we know what each is standing in for.

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Crystal W Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Default Avatar
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Post Thu Oct 20, 2016 5:50 pm
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, hot sauces
stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, just as exercise does, and these
have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's.

A. hot sauces stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, just as exercise does,
and these have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's

The correct answer, but the GMAT writers typically use the pronoun these not on its own but as the modifier of a noun, as in these endorphins. (The GMAT writers must hate when Paris Hilton says "That's hot!". She could be referring to anything.)

B. hot sauces stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, like exercise, and they
have a pain-relieving effect that is like morphine

misplaced modifier: exercise is too far from hot sauces, to which it is being compared
incorrect comparison: a pain relieving effect that is like morphine is comparing apples to oranges: the pain relieving effect is not like morphine. The pain-relieving effect of endorphins is like the pain-relieving effect of morphine.
pronoun ambiguity: they could be referring to the hot sauces or to the endorphins


C. hot sauces and exercise both stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, and
they have a pain-relieving effect like morphine

misplaced modifier: Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, hot sauces and exercise implies that exercise adds complementary flavors to foods. (Funny, my run this morning didn't seem to affect my Cheerios one way or the other.)
pronoun ambiguity: does they refer only to hot sauces or both to hot sauces AND to exercise?


D. the release of endorphins in the brain is stimulated both by hot sauces and
exercise, and they have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's

avoid passive voice: hot sauces stimulate is better than stimulated by hot sauces
parallelism: the GMAT writers likely would prefer both by hot sauces and BY exercise
pronoun ambiguity: they could be referring to the hot sauces or to the endorphins


E. the release of endorphins in the brain is stimulated by hot sauces, just as with
exercise, and these have a pain-relieving effect like that of morphine

misplaced modifier: what exactly is with exercise?
pronoun ambiguity: these is closer to hot sauces, suggesting that it's the hot sauces and not the endorphins that have the pain-relieving effect.
Thank you for your explanation and I have a small question about choice. In B, you said it has an incorrect comparison, if "they" refers to "endorphins", "they" can compare with "morphine". Am I correct?
Thanks in advance!

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Sunny_91 Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts
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Post Thu Nov 09, 2017 11:01 pm
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, hot sauces
stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, just as exercise does, and these
have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's.

A. hot sauces stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, just as exercise does,
and these have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's

The correct answer, but the GMAT writers typically use the pronoun these not on its own but as the modifier of a noun, as in these endorphins. (The GMAT writers must hate when Paris Hilton says "That's hot!". She could be referring to anything.)

B. hot sauces stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, like exercise, and they
have a pain-relieving effect that is like morphine

misplaced modifier: exercise is too far from hot sauces, to which it is being compared
incorrect comparison: a pain relieving effect that is like morphine is comparing apples to oranges: the pain relieving effect is not like morphine. The pain-relieving effect of endorphins is like the pain-relieving effect of morphine.
pronoun ambiguity: they could be referring to the hot sauces or to the endorphins


C. hot sauces and exercise both stimulate the release of endorphins in the brain, and
they have a pain-relieving effect like morphine

misplaced modifier: Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, hot sauces and exercise implies that exercise adds complementary flavors to foods. (Funny, my run this morning didn't seem to affect my Cheerios one way or the other.)
pronoun ambiguity: does they refer only to hot sauces or both to hot sauces AND to exercise?


D. the release of endorphins in the brain is stimulated both by hot sauces and
exercise, and they have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's

avoid passive voice: hot sauces stimulate is better than stimulated by hot sauces
parallelism: the GMAT writers likely would prefer both by hot sauces and BY exercise
pronoun ambiguity: they could be referring to the hot sauces or to the endorphins


E. the release of endorphins in the brain is stimulated by hot sauces, just as with
exercise, and these have a pain-relieving effect like that of morphine

misplaced modifier: what exactly is with exercise?
pronoun ambiguity: these is closer to hot sauces, suggesting that it's the hot sauces and not the endorphins that have the pain-relieving effect.
Hi Mitch,
In option A, the comparison is illegal. These (hot chocolates) need to be compared with morphine ( noun to noun) . but what does morphine's refer to- morphines relieving pain. Then hot chocolates is now compared with morphine's relieving pain.

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Post Fri Nov 10, 2017 4:42 am
Crystal W wrote:
Thank you for your explanation and I have a small question about choice. In B, you said it has an incorrect comparison, if "they" refers to "endorphins", "they" can compare with "morphine". Am I correct?
Thanks in advance!
The comparison in B is not viable, regardless of the referent for they.
B: they have a pain-relieving effect that is like morphine
Here, the red portion conveys that an EFFECT is similar to MORPHINE.
This comparison is illogical.
Eliminate B.

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Post Fri Nov 10, 2017 2:27 pm
GMATGuruNY wrote:
D. the release of endorphins in the brain is stimulated both by hot sauces and
exercise, and they have a pain-relieving effect like morphine's

avoid passive voice: hot sauces stimulate is better than stimulated by hot sauces
parallelism: the GMAT writers likely would prefer both by hot sauces and BY exercise
pronoun ambiguity: they could be referring to the hot sauces or to the endorphins


E. the release of endorphins in the brain is stimulated by hot sauces, just as with
exercise, and these have a pain-relieving effect like that of morphine

misplaced modifier: what exactly is with exercise?
pronoun ambiguity: these is closer to hot sauces, suggesting that it's the hot sauces and not the endorphins that have the pain-relieving effect.
Dear Mitch,
Can I eliminate Choices D & E based on the following:

Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, the release.........

Does we add the release ? it is nonsensical meaning. The subject does not match the adverbial clause.

Am I right in my reasoning in eliminating D & E?
Thanks

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Post Sat Nov 11, 2017 4:30 am
Mo2men wrote:
Dear Mitch,
Can I eliminate Choices D & E based on the following:

Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, the release.........

Does we add the release ? it is nonsensical meaning. The subject does not match the adverbial clause.

Am I right in my reasoning in eliminating D & E?
Thanks
Correct!
D and E: Besides adding complementary flavors to many foods, the release of endorphins in the brain
Here, the agent of adding seems to be the release, implying that the RELEASE of endorphins is ADDING flavors to foods.
This meaning is nonsensical.
Eliminate D and E.

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