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While it costs about the same

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
aditya8062 wrote:
my doubt : while i do understand that A is wrong for many other reason but plz confirm whether the initial comparison in A is oki :While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants
ELLIPSIS is the omission of words whose presence is understood.
Here, it is not crystal clear what words have been omitted.
A reader might make the following interpretation:
While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants [cost]...
The intended comparison is as follows:
While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as [to run] other types of power plants...
Since a reader might be confused, eliminate the answer choice.
Dear Mitch,
As you mentioned about choice C:
“It costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants.
Here, we cannot assume the presence of cost to run in the second clause because this phrase does not appear in the first clause.
In the phrase cost to run, to run serves as a modifier.
But in the first clause, to run serves not as a modifier but as part of the SUBJECT.
In the first clause, it is an expletive standing in for the infinitive subject to run nuclear plants.
First clause: It costs about the same to run nuclear plants.
Conveyed meaning: To run nuclear plants costs about the same.
As you can see, the phrase cost to run is not included in the conveyed meaning.
Thus, we can not assume the presence of this phrase in the second clause.”

OA:
While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as [the cost of running] for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.

As I understate, ellipsis is in red part is implied and makes the construction ok. However, does not 'nuclear plants' part of the whole phrase (modifier) 'the cost of running nuclear plants' and hence should be attached in the ellipses part? I mean to be as follows:
While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as [the cost of running nuclear plants] for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.
I know it will give nonsensical meaning I applied the same thinking of choice C in choice B.
Where did I go wrong?
Thanks in advance

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
aditya8062 wrote:
my doubt : while i do understand that A is wrong for many other reason but plz confirm whether the initial comparison in A is oki :While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants
ELLIPSIS is the omission of words whose presence is understood.
Here, it is not crystal clear what words have been omitted.
A reader might make the following interpretation:
While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants [cost]...
The intended comparison is as follows:
While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as [to run] other types of power plants...
Since a reader might be confused, eliminate the answer choice.
Dear Mitch,
OA:
While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as [the cost of running] for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.

As I understate, ellipsis is in red part is implied and makes the construction ok. However, does not 'nuclear plants' part of the whole phrase (modifier) ' the cost of running nuclear plants' and hence should be attached in the ellipses part? I mean to be as follows:
While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as [the cost of running nuclear plants] for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.
I know it will give nonsensical meaning but I noticed that you said before that the implied should be implied with the whole modifiers.
Where did I go wrong?
Thanks in advance

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Mo2men wrote:
OA:
While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as [the cost of running] for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.

As I understate, ellipsis is in red part is implied and makes the construction ok. However, does not 'nuclear plants' part of the whole phrase (modifier) 'the cost of running nuclear plants' and hence should be attached in the ellipses part? I mean to be as follows:
While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as [the cost of running nuclear plants] for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.
I know it will give nonsensical meaning I applied the same thinking of choice C in choice B.
Where did I go wrong?
Thanks in advance
OA: The cost of running nuclear power plants is about the same as for other types of power plants.
Since the blue portion provides its own referent (other types of power plants), the referent in the red portion (nuclear power plants) is not implied in the blue portion.

C: It costs about the same to run nuclear plants as for other types of power plants.
In C, it is standing in for the infinitive phrase in blue, conveying the following meaning:
To run nuclear power plants costs about the same as for other types of power plants.
Here, it is unclear what noun is being modified by the prepositional phrase in red.
Since it must be clear what a modifier is modifying, eliminate C.

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
C: It costs about the same to run nuclear plants as for other types of power plants.
In C, it is standing in for the infinitive phrase in blue, conveying the following meaning:
To run nuclear power plants costs about the same as for other types of power plants.
Here, it is unclear what noun is being modified by the prepositional phrase in red.
Since it must be clear what a modifier is modifying, eliminate C.
Thanks Mitch for you help. But can't choice C interpreted as follows:

To run nuclear power plants costs about the same as to run for other types of power plants DO/COST.

Can we consider: 'TO run' is part of the subject which could be implied in second phrase?

Thanks

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Mo2men wrote:
To run nuclear power plants costs about the same as to run for other types of power plants DO/COST.

Can we consider: 'TO run' is part of the subject which could be implied in second phrase?

Thanks
to run for X implies that X is a GOAL.
Mary plans to run for president.
Conveyed meaning:
The office of president = Mary's goal.

Thus, to run for other types of power plants implies that OTHER TYPES OF POWER PLANTS constitute a goal.
Not the intended meaning.
No one is attempting to reach other types of power plants.

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Mitch Hunt
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GMATGuruNY@gmail.com

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For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com.
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GMATGuruNY wrote:
Mo2men wrote:
To run nuclear power plants costs about the same as to run for other types of power plants DO/COST.

Can we consider: 'TO run' is part of the subject which could be implied in second phrase?

Thanks
to run for X implies that X is a GOAL.
Mary plans to run for president.
Conveyed meaning:
The office of president = Mary's goal.

Thus, to run for other types of power plants implies that OTHER TYPES OF POWER PLANTS constitute a goal.
Not the intended meaning.
No one is attempting to reach other types of power plants.
OA: The cost of running nuclear power plants is about the same as the cost of running for other types of power plants.

Does implied part here correct or intend to be a goal too? I think it modifies the word ' the cost'?

Thanks in advance

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Mo2men wrote:
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Mo2men wrote:
To run nuclear power plants costs about the same as to run for other types of power plants DO/COST.

Can we consider: 'TO run' is part of the subject which could be implied in second phrase?

Thanks
to run for X implies that X is a GOAL.
Mary plans to run for president.
Conveyed meaning:
The office of president = Mary's goal.

Thus, to run for other types of power plants implies that OTHER TYPES OF POWER PLANTS constitute a goal.
Not the intended meaning.
No one is attempting to reach other types of power plants.
OA: The cost of running nuclear power plants is about the same as the cost of running for other types of power plants.

Does implied part here correct or intend to be a goal too? I think it modifies the word ' the cost'?

Thanks in advance
The OA implies the following:
The cost of running nuclear power plants is about the same as [the cost] for other types of power plants.
The prepositions phrase in blue serves the same function as the prepositional phrase in red: both serve to modify the cost.

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GMATGuruNY@gmail.com

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
The OA implies the following:
The cost of running nuclear power plants is about the same as [the cost] for other types of power plants.
The prepositions phrase in blue serves the same function as the prepositional phrase in red: both serve to modify the cost.
Dear Mitch,
As I know, 'as' should be followed by a clause but in the second clause above, there is no verb. Is it omitted or implied too?

Thanks

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Mo2men wrote:
Dear Mitch,
As I know, 'as' should be followed by a clause but in the second clause above, there is no verb. Is it omitted or implied too?

Thanks
Correct!
OA: The cost of running nuclear power plants is about the same as [is the cost] for other types of power plants.
The blue verb in brackets is omitted but implied.

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Mitch Hunt
Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE
GMATGuruNY@gmail.com

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
aditya8062 wrote:
my doubt : while i do understand that A is wrong for many other reason but plz confirm whether the initial comparison in A is oki :While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants
ELLIPSIS is the omission of words whose presence is understood.
Here, it is not crystal clear what words have been omitted.
A reader might make the following interpretation:
While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants [cost]...
The intended comparison is as follows:
While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as [to run] other types of power plants...
Since a reader might be confused, eliminate the answer choice.
Is B the correct option?

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Hello Everyone!

GMAT questions that have the entire sentence underlined can be tricky, so let's dive in! First, we can take a closer look at the options and highlight any major differences we find in orange:

While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes it more expensive for them to generate electricity.

(A) While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes it more expensive for them to generate electricity.
(B) While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.
(C) Even though it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as for other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes the electricity they generate more expensive.
(D) It costs about the same to run nuclear plants as for other types of power plants, whereas the electricity they generate is more expensive, stemming from the fixed costs of building nuclear plants.
(E) The cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as other types of power plants, but the electricity they generate is made more expensive because of the fixed costs stemming from building nuclear plants.

While there are a lot of differences between these options, a few key ones jump out that we can focus on to start:

1. while / even though / whereas / but (conjunctions to show contrast)
2. as / as for (idiom structure/parallelism)
3. it is the fixed costs / the fixed costs / the electricity they generate (parallelism)


Whenever we see parallelism on our list, it's a good idea to start there. So let's focus on #3 on our list to start with. This sentence has two clauses:

Clause #1: Running nuclear power plants and other plants costs the same.
Clause #2: The cost of building nuclear power plants is higher, which is why they're more expensive than other.

Parallel structure will allow these two clauses to "flow" better because they will sound similar to the ear - and both English speakers and the GMAT love the easy flow of parallelism! So let's take a closer look at how both clauses are structured, and eliminate any that are confusing or not parallel:

(A) While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes it more expensive for them to generate electricity.

This is INCORRECT for a couple reasons. First, the two clauses aren't written using parallel structure. One clause starts with "it costs," but later uses "it is the fixed costs," which sounds overly complicated. We also have issues the pronouns "it" being vague and unnecessary - just say "the costs" instead of "it is the costs," which both mean the same thing. Also, there is a subject-verb disagreement problem with the plural subject "costs" and singular verb "makes."

(B) While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.

This is CORRECT! Starting both clauses with "the cost" and "the fixed costs" is a great example of using parallelism to simplify and clarify a long-winded sentence!

(C) Even though it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as for other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes the electricity they generate more expensive.

Just like option A, this one is INCORRECT because it adds in the pronoun "it" for no reason, and there is also the subject-verb agreement problem with "costs" and "makes."

(D) It costs about the same to run nuclear plants as for other types of power plants, whereas the electricity they generate is more expensive, stemming from the fixed costs of building nuclear plants.

This is INCORRECT because it doesn't use parallel structure. This sentence almost makes it sound like the writer is contrasting the cost of running a nuclear power plant to the electricity it generates, which are not parallel things. The wording of this sentence is just plain confusing, so let's rule it out.

(E) The cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as other types of power plants, but the electricity they generate is made more expensive because of the fixed costs stemming from building nuclear plants.

This is also INCORRECT because it seems to be contrasting the costs with the electricity, which are not parallel items. I also don't like the phrase "is made more expensive" because it's overly wordy - just say "is more expensive" instead.

There you have it - option B is the correct choice! If you start with looking at parallel structure, it's easy to start eliminating options rather quickly. We were lucky this time that only one option used parallel structure successfully. In other questions, it will at least help you eliminate several options, making it easier to tackle what's left over!


Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
patrick0885 wrote:
In answer choice A and C, they are saying that "it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes it more expensive..." and "it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes the electricity..." respectively.

Can someone please explain to me that how do we know the second "that" in the 2 sentences are referring to "fixed costs" but not the noun immediately preceding them? Is it just solely based on logical meaning?
In A and C, that makes (that + SINGULAR verb) must serve to refer to a preceding SINGULAR noun.
Since costs and plants are both PLURAL, that makes cannot serve to refer to either of these two nouns.
In A and C, that makes lacks a clear singular referent -- a valid reason to eliminate A and C.
Dear Mitch,

In Choice A & C, if we change 'makes' to 'make' to be as follows:

it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that make it more expensive for them to generate electricity.

1-From English point of view and regardless its wordiness, is this construction correct?

2- Is this kind on 'empty it'? What about first 'it' and second 'it' I feel it is punch of 2 types of 'empty it' in one sentence. As far as I know, the 'empty it can be like
It + description + that/whether + complete sentence (independent clause)
It + description + to + verb (infinitive)
Noun + make + it + description + to infinitive (Example :The rain made it quite challenging for people to drive on the freeway. )

Can you elaborate please. Thanks in advance

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Mo2men wrote:
The rain made it quite challenging for people to drive on the freeway
Here, the phrase in blue implies that people were trying to drive on the freeway but that the process was made challenging by the rain.
This meaning is logical.

Quote:
In Choice A & C, if we change 'makes' to 'make' to be as follows:

it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that make it more expensive for them to generate electricity.

1-From English point of view and regardless its wordiness, is this construction correct?
Here, the phrase in red implies that nuclear plants are trying to generate electricity but that the process is made more expensive by fixed costs.
This meaning is nonsensical.
Nuclear plants cannot TRY to perform an action.

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Mitch Hunt
Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE
GMATGuruNY@gmail.com

If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon.

Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance.
For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com.
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