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The consultant explained that companies

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The consultant explained that companies

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The consultant explained that companies that establish successfully operations abroad protect with consistency their intellectual property, lobby government officials without tiring, and empower local managers with aggression.

A - that establish successfully operations abroad protect with consistency their intellectual property, lobby government officials without tiring, and empower local managers with aggression

B- which establish operations abroad successfully protect intellectual property consistently, lobby government officials without tiring, and empower local managers aggressively

C-that establish successful operations abroad consistently protect their intellectual property, lobby tirelessly government officials, and empower aggressive local management

D-that successfully establish operations abroad consistently protect their intellectual property, tirelessly lobby government officials, and aggressively empower local managers

E-of which operations abroad are successfully established protect their intellectual property consistently, lobby tirelessly government officials, and aggressively empower local management

MGMAT; OA-D

Doubt: why is the use of WHICH in B wrong? Would B be correct, if B were "WHICH successfully establish operations abroad consistently protect their intellectual property, tirelessly lobby government officials, and aggressively empower local managers"



Last edited by patanjali.purpose on Sat Mar 24, 2012 12:38 am; edited 1 time in total

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Mo2men wrote:
Dear GMATGuru,

In choice C, does the place of modifier 'tirelessly' correct?
Generally, a one-word adverb such as tirelessly will not be positioned between a verb and its direct object.
Incorrect: Companies lobby tirelessly government officials.
Here, tirelessly (adverb) is awkwardly positioned between lobby (verb) and government officials (direct object).
Correct: Companies tirelessly lobby government officials.
Correct: Companies lobby government officials tirelessly.
Correct: Tirelessly, companies lobby government officials.

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SEE IT THIS WAY:

The consultant explained that companies which successfully establish operations abroad consistently protect their intellectual property, tirelessly lobby government officials, and aggressively empower local managers

this sentence doesnt makes sense i.e. It seems some kind of generic statement REGARDING COMPANIES. But the statement is certainly meaningful for the companies having "successfully establish operations ".

Now using "which" just adds further description (and certainly its nonessential and the sentence should stand without this junk) whereas "That" adds something restrictive regarding THE matter (here "companies"); removing the "that" information just renders the sentence meaningless.

HENCE D here is the best option with correct parallelism.

HTH

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killer1387 wrote:
SEE IT THIS WAY:

The consultant explained that companies which successfully establish operations abroad consistently protect their intellectual property, tirelessly lobby government officials, and aggressively empower local managers

this sentence doesnt makes sense i.e. It seems some kind of generic statement REGARDING COMPANIES. But the statement is certainly meaningful for the companies having "successfully establish operations ".

Now using "which" just adds further description (and certainly its nonessential and the sentence should stand without this junk) whereas "That" adds something restrictive regarding THE matter (here "companies"); removing the "that" information just renders the sentence meaningless.

HENCE D here is the best option with correct parallelism.

HTH
I made a mistake in my original post (I removed the extra THAT). IMO the presence of "WHICH or THAT" does not make restrictive; WHICH or THAT both can introduce restrictive clause. Then do you think this construction is wrong:

"WHICH successfully establish operations abroad consistently protect their intellectual property, tirelessly lobby government officials, and aggressively empower local managers"

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patanjali.purpose wrote:
I made a mistake in my original post (I removed the extra THAT). IMO the presence of "WHICH or THAT" does not make restrictive; WHICH or THAT both can introduce restrictive clause. Then do you think this construction is wrong:

"WHICH successfully establish operations abroad consistently protect their intellectual property, tirelessly lobby government officials, and aggressively empower local managers"
In itself the construction is correct but using it in the context of the sentence makes the sentence incorrect because of the meaning issues as i explained above.

The consultant explained that companieswhich successfully establish operations abroad consistently protect their intellectual property, tirelessly lobby government officials, and aggressively empower local managers.

"Which" introduces general descriptive information. "That" introduces restrictive one.

here we are restricting the information for the companies, for the sentence to make sense, hence we need "that" here.

HTH

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Thx kille1387 for your explanation.
Nonetheless, could you explain more on: "Which" introduces general descriptive information. "That" introduces restrictive one ? I don't fully understand this point

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patanjali.purpose wrote:
IMO the presence of "WHICH or THAT" does not make restrictive; WHICH or THAT both can introduce restrictive clause. Then do you think this construction is wrong:

"WHICH successfully establish operations abroad consistently protect their intellectual property, tirelessly lobby government officials, and aggressively empower local managers"
Yes, which and that both can be used to start a restrictive clause. But this is limited in real world and not on GMAT.

In GMAT, "which" is used only for non essential modifier. The other usage of "which" is as an object of a preposition. This is proven from OG. I couldn't find any sentence in OG ( CR, SC and RC ) where "which" is used for restrictive modifier.

B has one more problem, since your doubt is only regarding "which" - I am not discussing that.

hope this helps !!

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patanjali.purpose wrote:
The consultant explained that companies that establish successfully operations abroad protect with consistency their intellectual property, lobby government officials without tiring, and empower local managers with aggression.

A - that establish successfully operations abroad protect with consistency their intellectual property, lobby government officials without tiring, and empower local managers with aggression

B- which establish operations abroad successfully protect intellectual property consistently, lobby government officials without tiring, and empower local managers aggressively

C-that establish successful operations abroad consistently protect their intellectual property, lobby tirelessly government officials, and empower aggressive local management

D-that successfully establish operations abroad consistently protect their intellectual property, tirelessly lobby government officials, and aggressively empower local managers

E-of which operations abroad are successfully established protect their intellectual property consistently, lobby tirelessly government officials, and aggressively empower local management

MGMAT; OA-D
Dear GMATGuru,

In choice C, does the place of modifier 'tirelessly' correct? I know that adverb can come either before the verb or at the end of the clause, except for verb 'to be'. Is there any change or exceptions in GMAT structure?

P.S. Please ignore the meaning 'empower aggressive local management' issue that is non nonsensical and could eliminate the choice based on it.

Thanks in advance

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