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Science, because people engage in it, is a socially embedded

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Science, because people engage in it, is a socially embedded

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Science, because people engage in it, is a socially embedded activity. It progresses by hunch, vision, and intuition. Much of its change through time does not record a closer approach to absolute truth, but the alternation of the cultural contexts that influence it so strongly. Facts are not pure and unsullied bits of information- culture influences what we see and how we see it. Theories, moreover, are not inexorable inductions from facts. The most creative theories are often imaginative visions imposed upon facts; the source of imagination is also strongly cultural.

The author implies that those who rely on scientific results should

a) realize that science relies on imagination to approach absolute truth
b) insist on pure and unsullied facts rather than on theories
c) understand that theories are frequently strict inductions from facts
d) consider the cultural biases of scientists
e) reject the imaginative visions imposed on facts

OA: D

I need help here. Where are the mistakes in options B and E.?

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Hello ardz24.

I think B is incorrect (but I don't know how to explain it).

But, I am with you, what is wrong with option E? Experts, can you give us some help here please?

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This question presents you with many related pieces of evidence. The correct choice is the one that is supported by evidence -- in other words, a conclusion. The question itself gives you the beginning of the conclusion: Those who rely on scientific results should . . . ?

The correct choice is D. The author wants the reader to be aware that scientific thought is not "pure information." It is not "absolute truth." Instead, it is a social activity that is influenced by "cultural contexts." The correct choice is not much more than a rewording of this idea. Science, since it's not pure or absolute, since it's influenced by various cultures, is therefore biased. If you're relying on science, you better be aware of these biases.

Choice B contradicts the passage. Facts are NOT pure and unsullied. Furthermore, the author does not say stick to facts, not theories. That's an irrelevant comparison. (Look out for those.)

Choice E says to reject imaginative visions imposed on facts. The author says that these lead to "the most creative" theories, which we shouldn't assume to be a bad thing. Why reject these theories?

Please contact me with any follow-up questions.

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