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A contractor combined x tons of a gravel mixture that

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A contractor combined x tons of a gravel mixture that

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Source: GMAT Prep

A contractor combined x tons of a gravel mixture that contained 10 percent of gravel G, by weight, with y tons of a mixture that contained 2 percent of gravel G, by weight, to produce z tons of a mixture that was 5 percent of gravel G, by eight. What is the value of x?

1) y = 10.
2) z = 16.

The OA is D

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BTGmoderatorLU wrote:
Source: GMAT Prep

A contractor combined x tons of a gravel mixture that contained 10 percent of gravel G, by weight, with y tons of a mixture that contained 2 percent of gravel G, by weight, to produce z tons of a mixture that was 5 percent of gravel G, by eight. What is the value of x?

1) y = 10.
2) z = 16.
x = 10% gravel
y = 2% gravel.
z = the MIXTURE of x and y = 5% gravel.

To determine the required ratio of x to y, use ALLIGATION -- a very efficient way to handle MIXTURE PROBLEMS.

Step 1: Plot the 3 percentages on a number line, with the percentages for x and y on the ends and the percentage for mixture z in the middle.
x 10%-----------5%-----------2% y

Step 2: Calculate the distances between the percentages.
x 10%-----5-----5%----3-----2% y

Step 3: Determine the ratio in the mixture.
The required ratio of x to y is equal to the RECIPROCAL of the distances in red.
x:y = 3:5.

Since x:y = 3:5, and 3+5 = 8, every 8 tons of mixture z is composed of 3 tons of x and 5 tons of y.

Statement 1: y=10
Since x:y = 3:5 = 6:10, x=6.
SUFFICIENT.

Statement 2: z=16
Since x:y = 3:5 = 6:10, and 6+10 = 16, the 16 tons of mixture z must be composed of 6 tons of x and 10 tons of y.
SUFFICIENT.

The correct answer is D.

Check here for a similar problem:
http://www.beatthegmat.com/weighted-averages-mixtures-t274015.html

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GMAT/MBA Expert

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BTGmoderatorLU wrote:
Source: GMAT Prep

A contractor combined x tons of a gravel mixture that contained 10 percent of gravel G, by weight, with y tons of a mixture that contained 2 percent of gravel G, by weight, to produce z tons of a mixture that was 5 percent of gravel G, by eight. What is the value of x?

1) y = 10.
2) z = 16.

The OA is D
Let's use some weighted averages to solve this question
Weighted average of groups combined = (group A proportion)(group A average) + (group B proportion)(group B average) + (group C proportion)(group C average) + ...

Target question: What is the value of x ?

Given: A contractor combined x tons of a gravel mixture that contained 10 percent gravel G, by weight, with y tons of a mixture that contained 2 percent gravel G, by weight, to produce z tons of a mixture that was 5 percent gravel G, by weight.
First, we can write: x + y = z

Also, the total weight of the mixture = z (aka x + y)
So, when we apply the above formula, we get: 5% = (x/z)(10%) + (y/z)(2%)
Ignore the % symbols: 5 = (x/z)(10) + (y/z)(2)
Multiply both sides by z to get: 5z = 10x + 2y
Since x + y = z, we can rewrite the above equation as: 5(x +y) = 10x + 2y
Expand: 5x + 5y = 10x + 2y
Simplify to get: 5x - 3y = 0

Now onto the statements!!!!!

Statement 1: y = 10
Replace y with 10 to get: 5x - 3(10) = 0
Solve to get, x = 6
Since we can answer the target question with certainty, statement 1 is SUFFICIENT


Statement 2: z = 16
In other words, x + y = 16

So, we have:
5x - 3y = 0 and x + y = 16
Since we have 2 linear equations with 2 variables, we COULD solve the system for x, which means we COULD answer the target question
So, statement 2 is SUFFICIENT

Answer: D

Cheers,
Brent

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Brent Hanneson – Creator of GMATPrepNow.com
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