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##### This topic has expert replies
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by GMATGuruNY » Mon Aug 24, 2015 1:21 pm

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RBBmba@2014 wrote: On GMAT,doesn't VERBed ALWAYS serve to modify the NEAREST PRECEDING NOUN (or NOUN Phrase), IRRESPECTIVE of COMMA before it (re the VERBed MODIFIER) ?
Generally, COMMA + VERBed serves to refer to the nearest preceding noun.
E: electric current, first made in 1845
Here, made seems to modify current -- the nearest preceding noun -- implying that electric CURRENT was first MADE in 1845.
Not the intended meaning.

NO COMMA + VERBed does NOT have to refer to the nearest preceding noun.
Here, made serves to modify an observation, implying that AN OBSERVATION was first MADE in 1845.
This is the intended meaning.
In the OA, the referent for made is NOT the nearest preceding noun.
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by RBBmba@2014 » Tue Aug 25, 2015 2:44 am

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@ GMATGuruNY - couple of quick clarifications required on VERBed modifier in this SC and as a whole...

1. If we say that in E, COMMA + VERBed ,first made modifies the COMPLETE preceding NOUN Phrase an observation about electric current, then will it be wrong as far as application of VERBed modifier is concerned on GMAT ? ( However, E is still an INCORRECT option for other reasons)

2. NO COMMA + VERBed : So, it may (or may not) refer to nearest preceding NOUN (or NOUN Phrase) on GMAT.
BUT COMMA + VERBed ALWAYS serves to refer to the nearest preceding NOUN (or NOUN Phrase) on GMAT. Did I get you right ?

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by RBBmba@2014 » Tue Sep 01, 2015 2:12 am

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GMATGuruNY - could you please share your feedback on my concerns mentioned in the immediate above post ?

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by GMATGuruNY » Tue Sep 01, 2015 3:30 am

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RBBmba@2014 wrote:@ GMATGuruNY - couple of quick clarifications required on VERBed modifier in this SC and as a whole...

1. If we say that in E, COMMA + VERBed ,first made modifies the COMPLETE preceding NOUN Phrase an observation about electric current, then will it be wrong as far as application of VERBed modifier is concerned on GMAT ? ( However, E is still an INCORRECT option for other reasons)
COMMA + VERBed must serve to modify the nearest preceding NOUN.
In E, COMMA + first made CANNOT serve to modify observation, since observation is NOT the nearest preceding noun.
Rather, it must serve to modify current, the nearest preceding noun.
As a result, E conveys that the CURRENT was FIRST MADE in 1845 -- a distortion of the intended meaning.
2. NO COMMA + VERBed : So, it may (or may not) refer to nearest preceding NOUN (or NOUN Phrase) on GMAT.
BUT COMMA + VERBed ALWAYS serves to refer to the nearest preceding NOUN (or NOUN Phrase) on GMAT. Did I get you right ?
COMMA + VERBed must serve to modify the nearest preceding NOUN.
NO COMMA + VERBed may modify either the nearest preceding noun OR the nearest preceding NOUN PHRASE.
In the OA, first made modifies an observation about electric current -- the nearest preceding noun PHRASE -- correctly conveying that AN OBSERVATION ABOUT ELECTRIC CURRENT was FIRST MADE in 1845.
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by cuhmoon » Fri Jan 27, 2017 1:28 pm

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Great explanations. But,

COMMA + VERBed must serve to modify the nearest preceding NOUN.
In E, COMMA + first made CANNOT serve to modify observation, since observation is NOT the nearest preceding noun.
Rather, it must serve to modify current, the nearest preceding noun.

In this case, isn't there an exception to the rule that the preposition phrase can be IGNORED and thus first made can SKIP current to modify observation?

[quote="GMATGuruNY"][quote="RBBmba@2014"]@ [color=red]GMATGuruNY [/color]- couple of quick clarifications required on [i][color=red]VERBed[/color][/i] modifier in this SC and as a whole...

1. If we say that in E, COMMA + VERBed [i][color=red],first made [/color][/i] modifies [u]the COMPLETE preceding NOUN Phrase[/u] [i]an observation about electric current[/i], then will it be wrong as far as application of [i]VERBed[/i] modifier is concerned on GMAT ? [i]( However, E is still an INCORRECT option for other reasons)[/i][/quote]

COMMA + VERBed must serve to modify the nearest preceding NOUN.
In E, COMMA + [i]first made[/i] CANNOT serve to modify [i]observation[/i], since [i]observation[/i] is NOT the nearest preceding noun.
Rather, it must serve to modify [i]current[/i], the nearest preceding noun.
As a result, E conveys that the CURRENT was FIRST MADE in 1845 -- a distortion of the intended meaning.

[quote]2. [i]NO COMMA + VERBed[/i] : So, it [i][color=red]may (or may not)[/color][/i] refer to nearest preceding NOUN (or NOUN Phrase) on GMAT.
BUT [i]COMMA + VERBed [/i] [color=red]ALWAYS [/color]serves to refer to the nearest preceding NOUN (or NOUN Phrase) on GMAT. Did I get you right ?[/quote]

COMMA + VERBed must serve to modify the nearest preceding NOUN.
NO COMMA + VERBed may modify either the nearest preceding noun OR the nearest preceding NOUN PHRASE.
In the OA, [i]first made[/i] modifies [i]an observation about electric current[/i] -- the nearest preceding noun PHRASE -- correctly conveying that AN OBSERVATION ABOUT ELECTRIC CURRENT was FIRST MADE in 1845.[/quote]

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by GMATGuruNY » Sat Jan 28, 2017 4:32 am

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cuhmoon wrote:Great explanations. But,

COMMA + VERBed must serve to modify the nearest preceding NOUN.
In E, COMMA + first made CANNOT serve to modify observation, since observation is NOT the nearest preceding noun.
Rather, it must serve to modify current, the nearest preceding noun.

In this case, isn't there an exception to the rule that the preposition phrase can be IGNORED and thus first made can SKIP current to modify observation?
As stated in my post above, a COMMA + VERBed modifier must serve to modify the nearest preceding noun.
To my knowledge, no official SC has disregarded this rule.
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by Mo2men » Thu Jan 10, 2019 1:39 am

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GMATGuruNY wrote: Generally, when a conjunction such as and serves to connect one extended that-clause to another, the second that should not be omitted.
With regard to this rule, E should read as follows:
one of Kirchoff's laws THAT was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and THAT is now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

Eliminate E.
Dear GMATGuru

I agree with about the parallelism of connecting extended 'that' clause. But I wonder if this rule was violated in any official question that you came across. If yes, Can you cite any official question that second 'that' was omitted?

Thanks

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by GMATGuruNY » Thu Jan 10, 2019 3:36 am

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Mo2men wrote:
GMATGuruNY wrote: Generally, when a conjunction such as and serves to connect one extended that-clause to another, the second that should not be omitted.
With regard to this rule, E should read as follows:
one of Kirchoff's laws THAT was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and THAT is now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

Eliminate E.
Dear GMATGuru

I agree with about the parallelism of connecting extended 'that' clause. But I wonder if this rule was violated in any official question that you came across. If yes, Can you cite any official question that second 'that' was omitted?

Thanks
Offhand, I cannot cite an official SC that violates the rule discussed above.
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by vietnam47 » Wed Aug 14, 2019 7:11 am

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look at choice a.

"and" is a hard word on gmat. "and" show that 2 or more than 2 items are parallel grammatically. but we need to prove that the items are parallel logically. this require us to understand meaning clearly . this job is not easy.
"and it is" is popular phrase on gmat sc. we "and it is" shows that there is a parallel pattern and we need to prove that there is a logically parallelism to choose the sentence.
so, "and it is..." need to be parallel logically with a preceding item. "which" can not parallel with "and it is" because "and which" is parallel with "which".
so, "and it is..." must be parallel with an further item. there is no item, which can be parallel with "and it is " logically.