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100 points for $49 worth of Veritas practice GMATs FREE VERITAS PRACTICE GMAT EXAMS Earn 10 Points Per Post Earn 10 Points Per Thanks Earn 10 Points Per Upvote ## PLease help me with the concept! ##### This topic has 8 expert replies and 14 member replies Goto page ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 15023 messages Followed by: 1859 members Upvotes: 13060 GMAT Score: 790 RBBmba@2014 wrote: On GMAT,doesn't VERBed ALWAYS serve to modify the NEAREST PRECEDING NOUN (or NOUN Phrase), IRRESPECTIVE of COMMA before it (re the VERBed MODIFIER) ? Generally, COMMA + VERBed serves to refer to the nearest preceding noun. E: electric current, first made in 1845 Here, made seems to modify current -- the nearest preceding noun -- implying that electric CURRENT was first MADE in 1845. Not the intended meaning. NO COMMA + VERBed does NOT have to refer to the nearest preceding noun. OA: an observation about electric current first made in 1845 Here, made serves to modify an observation, implying that AN OBSERVATION was first MADE in 1845. This is the intended meaning. In the OA, the referent for made is NOT the nearest preceding noun. _________________ Mitch Hunt Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. Student Review #1 Student Review #2 Student Review #3 Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now. Legendary Member Joined 30 May 2012 Posted: 940 messages Followed by: 4 members Upvotes: 8 @ GMATGuruNY - couple of quick clarifications required on VERBed modifier in this SC and as a whole... 1. If we say that in E, COMMA + VERBed ,first made modifies the COMPLETE preceding NOUN Phrase an observation about electric current, then will it be wrong as far as application of VERBed modifier is concerned on GMAT ? ( However, E is still an INCORRECT option for other reasons) 2. NO COMMA + VERBed : So, it may (or may not) refer to nearest preceding NOUN (or NOUN Phrase) on GMAT. BUT COMMA + VERBed ALWAYS serves to refer to the nearest preceding NOUN (or NOUN Phrase) on GMAT. Did I get you right ? Legendary Member Joined 30 May 2012 Posted: 940 messages Followed by: 4 members Upvotes: 8 GMATGuruNY - could you please share your feedback on my concerns mentioned in the immediate above post ? Would much appreciate your reply.Thanks in advance! ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 15023 messages Followed by: 1859 members Upvotes: 13060 GMAT Score: 790 RBBmba@2014 wrote: @ GMATGuruNY - couple of quick clarifications required on VERBed modifier in this SC and as a whole... 1. If we say that in E, COMMA + VERBed ,first made modifies the COMPLETE preceding NOUN Phrase an observation about electric current, then will it be wrong as far as application of VERBed modifier is concerned on GMAT ? ( However, E is still an INCORRECT option for other reasons) COMMA + VERBed must serve to modify the nearest preceding NOUN. In E, COMMA + first made CANNOT serve to modify observation, since observation is NOT the nearest preceding noun. Rather, it must serve to modify current, the nearest preceding noun. As a result, E conveys that the CURRENT was FIRST MADE in 1845 -- a distortion of the intended meaning. Quote: 2. NO COMMA + VERBed : So, it may (or may not) refer to nearest preceding NOUN (or NOUN Phrase) on GMAT. BUT COMMA + VERBed ALWAYS serves to refer to the nearest preceding NOUN (or NOUN Phrase) on GMAT. Did I get you right ? COMMA + VERBed must serve to modify the nearest preceding NOUN. NO COMMA + VERBed may modify either the nearest preceding noun OR the nearest preceding NOUN PHRASE. In the OA, first made modifies an observation about electric current -- the nearest preceding noun PHRASE -- correctly conveying that AN OBSERVATION ABOUT ELECTRIC CURRENT was FIRST MADE in 1845. _________________ Mitch Hunt Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. Student Review #1 Student Review #2 Student Review #3 Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now. Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts Joined 08 Oct 2016 Posted: 4 messages Great explanations. But, COMMA + VERBed must serve to modify the nearest preceding NOUN. In E, COMMA + first made CANNOT serve to modify observation, since observation is NOT the nearest preceding noun. Rather, it must serve to modify current, the nearest preceding noun. In this case, isn't there an exception to the rule that the preposition phrase can be IGNORED and thus first made can SKIP current to modify observation? [quote="GMATGuruNY"][quote="RBBmba@2014"]@ [color=red]GMATGuruNY [/color]- couple of quick clarifications required on [i][color=red]VERBed[/color][/i] modifier in this SC and as a whole... 1. If we say that in E, COMMA + VERBed [i][color=red],first made [/color][/i] modifies [u]the COMPLETE preceding NOUN Phrase[/u] [i]an observation about electric current[/i], then will it be wrong as far as application of [i]VERBed[/i] modifier is concerned on GMAT ? [i]( However, E is still an INCORRECT option for other reasons)[/i][/quote] COMMA + VERBed must serve to modify the nearest preceding NOUN. In E, COMMA + [i]first made[/i] CANNOT serve to modify [i]observation[/i], since [i]observation[/i] is NOT the nearest preceding noun. Rather, it must serve to modify [i]current[/i], the nearest preceding noun. As a result, E conveys that the CURRENT was FIRST MADE in 1845 -- a distortion of the intended meaning. [quote]2. [i]NO COMMA + VERBed[/i] : So, it [i][color=red]may (or may not)[/color][/i] refer to nearest preceding NOUN (or NOUN Phrase) on GMAT. BUT [i]COMMA + VERBed [/i] [color=red]ALWAYS [/color]serves to refer to the nearest preceding NOUN (or NOUN Phrase) on GMAT. Did I get you right ?[/quote] COMMA + VERBed must serve to modify the nearest preceding NOUN. NO COMMA + VERBed may modify either the nearest preceding noun OR the nearest preceding NOUN PHRASE. In the OA, [i]first made[/i] modifies [i]an observation about electric current[/i] -- the nearest preceding noun PHRASE -- correctly conveying that AN OBSERVATION ABOUT ELECTRIC CURRENT was FIRST MADE in 1845.[/quote] ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 15023 messages Followed by: 1859 members Upvotes: 13060 GMAT Score: 790 cuhmoon wrote: Great explanations. But, COMMA + VERBed must serve to modify the nearest preceding NOUN. In E, COMMA + first made CANNOT serve to modify observation, since observation is NOT the nearest preceding noun. Rather, it must serve to modify current, the nearest preceding noun. In this case, isn't there an exception to the rule that the preposition phrase can be IGNORED and thus first made can SKIP current to modify observation? As stated in my post above, a COMMA + VERBed modifier must serve to modify the nearest preceding noun. To my knowledge, no official SC has disregarded this rule. _________________ Mitch Hunt Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. Student Review #1 Student Review #2 Student Review #3 Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now. Legendary Member Joined 25 Sep 2015 Posted: 638 messages Followed by: 5 members Upvotes: 14 GMATGuruNY wrote: Generally, when a conjunction such as and serves to connect one extended that-clause to another, the second that should not be omitted. With regard to this rule, E should read as follows: one of Kirchoff's laws THAT was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and THAT is now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics. Eliminate E. Dear GMATGuru I agree with about the parallelism of connecting extended 'that' clause. But I wonder if this rule was violated in any official question that you came across. If yes, Can you cite any official question that second 'that' was omitted? Thanks ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 15023 messages Followed by: 1859 members Upvotes: 13060 GMAT Score: 790 Mo2men wrote: GMATGuruNY wrote: Generally, when a conjunction such as and serves to connect one extended that-clause to another, the second that should not be omitted. With regard to this rule, E should read as follows: one of Kirchoff's laws THAT was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and THAT is now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics. Eliminate E. Dear GMATGuru I agree with about the parallelism of connecting extended 'that' clause. But I wonder if this rule was violated in any official question that you came across. If yes, Can you cite any official question that second 'that' was omitted? Thanks Offhand, I cannot cite an official SC that violates the rule discussed above. _________________ Mitch Hunt Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. 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