medical terminology

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medical terminology

by j_shreyans » Sat May 23, 2015 10:33 am
Many of these gene flaws - there are plenty of them, with names like BCR-ABL - are relative newcomers to medical terminology, as are a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs, still in early testing, that are aimed at them.


A)medical terminology, as are a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs, still in early testing, that are aimed at them.

B)medical terminology like a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs that are still in early testing, and aimed at them.

C)medical terminology, as are a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs that are still in early testing, aimed at them.

D)medical terminology like a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs, still in early testing, that are aimed at them.

E)medical terminology, as are a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs, still in early testing, and aimed at them.

OAA

Experts please explain and also i want to know as are is correct?

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by VivianKerr » Sat May 23, 2015 12:26 pm
Is this from a reputable source? It seems odd to me that "to medical" is underlined since it appears in every answer choice. This obviously isn't an official SC.

That said, (B) and (E) are out because it isn't logical for "them" to refer to "gene flaws." The sentence would not make logical sense, and the usage of "and" implies that "them" is "gene flaws."

So it's between (A), (C), and (D). There is nothing wrong with "as are" because it is a common construction used to make a comparison.

Example: My eyes are blue, as are my sister's.

Besides Meaning, this sentence is testing Modification. In (C), it's not clear what "aimed at them" is modifying, and in (D), the comma before like is missing . By process of elimination, it must be [spoiler](A)[/spoiler].
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by binit » Sat May 23, 2015 8:55 pm
Hi Vivian,

I understood your POE, but does A express correctly what it intended to? E.g. what that are aimed at them is modifying? 'testing?' If yes, the comma before that is wrong, I think.

And as u said, them referring to Gene flaws is wrong, I really don't understand how A corrects that error.

I am bit confused with many issues with A. I believe the sentence could have been written much better and concise. Pls help.

~Binit.[/b]

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by VivianKerr » Sun May 24, 2015 3:57 pm
Hey Binit,

You raise a good point. Could this sentence have been written in a more clear, concise manner? Absolutely. But sometimes with SC, we have to deal with a "best of the worst" strategy.

These are the facts:

1) 1 answer choice is correct
2) 4 are wrong

The 4 that are "wrong" are always wrong for one of two reasons: illogical meaning or GMAT grammar error.

The only time we should consider "style" such as passive/active voice, concision, wordiness, redundancy, etc. is if we cannot find a MEANING or a GRAMMAR error first. Style is subjective, so if you had doubts about whether (A) had a logical meaning, I would write something like:

(A) illog. M?

Then move on to (B), leaving (A) uncrossed off your scratch pad. Keep ALL answer choices you cannot find a grammar or a DEFINITE meaning error in, then if you have 2 or more choices left, you can examine them for style issues.

Make sense? Grammar/Meaning first. Then Style. Usually we'll be able to eliminate 4 based on grammar and won't ever have to worry about style! :-)
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by binit » Sun May 24, 2015 9:16 pm
Thanks a lot Vivian,

I was initially worried about this particular question first, but, u have actually given me a strategy to attack tough SCs. I would like to apply that right form this question itself:

1. Grammar scan: there are 2 major issues:
a. as vs like
b. the modifier at the end

'Like' doesn't seem good since gene flaws can't be LIKE new anti-tumor drugs
So, B and D gone.ruled out.
A,C,E remaining.
In A: drugs, still in early testing, that are aimed at them.- grammatically no error. still in early testing modifies DRUGS and without modifier we have: drugs that are aimed at them which is GOOD.

In C: testing, aimed at them. doubtful because of the COMMA, I think it would have been GRAMMATICALLY correct w/o that COMMA. (pls correct me if needed)

In E: Modifier is OKAY. But cut-off the fluff and we have: drugs and aimed at them - Nonsensical.

Now we singled out A, so do not need to scan stylistically.

Vivian, kindly give me your feedback about my approach to this problem. I ll highly appreciate any suggestions.

~Binit.

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by VivianKerr » Mon May 25, 2015 12:35 pm
Hey Binit,

My approach is similar, except I don't try to find everything wrong with each choice. I don't do a "Grammar Scan" of all choices. I do it like this:

Step 1 - Read Choice (A) and Identify One Grammar or Meaning Error

Since we know that a sentence with a grammatical error or an illogical meaning can NEVER be correct on the GMAT, try to identify and name ONE specific error you see. It may seem like there are several things "wrong" with the sentence, so choose the error you feel the most confident about, and write it down on your scratch paper. For example, maybe you think the meaning might be illogical, the sentence overall is awkwardly constructed, and there is an incorrect comparison. You might choose to go with the comparison error first.

What if there is no error in (A), as in this question? If (A) seems correct to you, or you cannot spot a grammar or meaning error, feel free to search for a style error. If you feel there is one, such as redundancy or passive voice, make a note of it next to letter "A" on your scratch pad, but DO NOT CROSS IT OFF YET. Remember, a style error doesn't make an option automatically incorrect. It only makes it less likely to be correct. Once you've done this, move on to (B) and look for an identifiable grammar or meaning error. If (A) is correct, then (B) must contain an error.

Step 2 - Scan the Other Choices; Eliminate Error #1

Do any of the other 4 choices contain that same error? If so, quickly cross out

Step 3 - Move to the Next Available Choice; Look for Error #2

If you have more than one choice left, repeat the process. Move to the next choice remaining and look for an identifiable grammar or meaning error. If none exists, feel free to look for a style error and make a note of it next to the letter on your scratch pad. Once you've identified a grammar or meaning error, cross off the letter of that answer choice, and the letters of any other answer choices that contain the same error. Repeat as needed.

Step 4 - Stuck Between Two? Eliminate Based on Style

On a difficult Sentence Correction, you may find yourself narrowed down to two answer choices that both seem grammatically correct and both have logical meanings. Which one does the GMAT prefer? The answer: the clearest, most concise option. If one choice appears to have awkwardness or wordiness or passive voice, select the other option. All grammar being equal, the GMAT rewards clarity.

So my scratch work ends up looking something like:

Image

You're right that E has a non-sensical meaning but C would NOT be grammatically correct without the comma.

The simple version of C without the comma would read:

Many of these flaws are newcomers to MT, AS are a majority of X that are still in testing AIMED AT THEM.

The "aimed at them" still comes out of nowhere since the "AS" sets up a comparison that logically ENDS after the modifier "that are still in testing." If there was a word like "and" before "aimed at them," then you could say that (C) was grammatically correct.

Hope this helps!
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by GMATGuruNY » Tue May 26, 2015 2:41 am
j_shreyans wrote: i want to know as are is correct?
Many comparisons employ ELLIPSIS: the omission of words whose presence is implied.
OA: Many of these gene flaws are relatively newcomers to medical terminology, as are a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs [relative newcomers to medical terminology].
Here, the words in brackets are omitted, but their presence is implied.
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by bubbliiiiiiii » Tue May 26, 2015 5:07 am
Is COMMA + that in A correct?
Regards,

Pranay

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by GMATGuruNY » Tue May 26, 2015 11:31 am
bubbliiiiiiii wrote:Is COMMA + that in A correct?
...as are a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs, still in early testing, that are aimed at them.
Here, the appearance of COMMA + that is misleading.
The two commas have no relationship to the following that.
Rather, their purpose is to set off the non-essential modifier in red.
If we remove this non-essential modifier, we get:
as are a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs that are aimed at them.

There is precedent for this sort of construction on the GMAT.
An official SC:
Scientists have identified an asteroid, 2000 BF19, that is about half a mile wide.
Here, the non-essential modifier in red separates the that-clause from its referent (an asteroid).
If we remove this non-essential modifier, we get:
Scientists have identified an asteroid that is about half a mile wide.
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by Sun Light » Tue Jul 14, 2015 11:03 am
is my reasoning fine?

any other way to kill 'D' and 'E'? Other than the pronoun logic...

Many of these gene flaws - there are plenty of them, with names like BCR-ABL - are relative newcomers to medical terminology, as are a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs, still in early testing, that are aimed at them.

A medical terminology, as are a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs, still in early testing, that are aimed at them.
Not a good feeling though, this is the best among all the options.

B medical terminology like a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs that are still in early testing, and aimed at them.
", and " is the parallel marker. To the right of it we have a past participle "aimed at them" and to the left of ", and" we have a subordinate clause "that are still in early testing". Not parallel.

C medical terminology, as are a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs that are still in early testing, aimed at them.
"aimed at them" is a noun modifier, modifying "testing". Incorrect.

D medical terminology like a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs, still in early testing, that are aimed at them.
comma + like..

E medical terminology, as are a majority of the new anti-tumor drugs, still in early testing, and aimed at them.
"and" is a parallel marker.

"Aimed at them" is not parallel to anything.