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Heavy commitment by an executive

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Mo2men wrote:
Dear GMATGuru,

In choice B, regardless of meaning and problem of ones, does the following construction work?

An executive....makes misinterpreting them.....please not my focus is the verb 'makes' + misinterpreting' NOT the pronoun them or ones.

I think it should be:

An executive....makes misinterpretation of them

Am i correct?
All of the following seem awkward:
X makes misinterpreting signs likely.
X makes misinterpretation of signs likely.
X makes the misinterpretation of signs likely.


When a form of make serves to refer to an induced action, the induced action is usually expressed in an INFINITIVE PHRASE or a THAT-CLAUSE.
In many cases, the to will be omitted from the infinitive phrase.

OA: Being heavily committed is likely to make an executive [to] miss signs or [to] misinterpret them.
Here, the infinitive phrase in blue serves to express the two induced actions.
In this case, the to is omitted from each infinitive.

An OA in GMATPrep:
A law passed in 1933 making it a crime to hold gold in the form of bullions.
Here, the infinitive phrase in blue serves to express the induced action.

An RC passage in the OG13:
The complexity of these relationships makes it unlikely that a system of import relief laws will meet the strategic needs.
Here, the that-clause in blue serves to express the induced action.

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Mitch Hunt
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GMATGuruNY@gmail.com

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GMATGuruNY wrote:
An OA in GMATPrep:
A law passed in 1933 making it a crime to hold gold in the form of bullions.
Here, the infinitive phrase in blue serves to express the induced action.

An RC passage in the OG13:
The complexity of these relationships makes it unlikely that a system of import relief laws will meet the strategic needs.
Here, the that-clause in blue serves to express the induced action.
Dear Mitch,

In light of explanation above, all the cited examples are considered 'empty it', So why does 'it' in choice A not considered as 'empty it' too?

Choice A: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action................. makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

As you you explained 'empty it' before, 'it' is always refer to either 'to + Infinitive' or 'who/whether/that clause'.
The structure of choice A resembles the same construction in the example from GMAT prep. Both are as follows:

Noun + make/makes + description + 'to + Infinitive' or 'who/whether/that clause'.

I saw many sentences like the following:
The bad weather in SF makes it quite difficult to work outdoors.

It also resembles the same structure of Choice A.

Where do I go wrong?

Thanks

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Mo2men wrote:
Dear Mitch,

In light of explanation above, all the cited examples are considered 'empty it', So why does 'it' in choice A not considered as 'empty it' too?

Choice A: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action................. makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

As you you explained 'empty it' before, 'it' is always refer to either 'to + Infinitive' or 'who/whether/that clause'.
The structure of choice A resembles the same construction in the example from GMAT prep. Both are as follows:

Noun + make/makes + description + 'to + Infinitive' or 'who/whether/that clause'.

I saw many sentences like the following:
The bad weather in SF makes it quite difficult to work outdoors.

It also resembles the same structure of Choice A.

Where do I go wrong?

Thanks
The bad weather makes it difficult to work outdoors.
Here, the infinitive in blue is not immediately preceded by an agent: the sentence does not specify WHO is intended TO WORK.
The implication is that the agent for the blue infinitive is not a specific person but people IN GENERAL, as follows:
The bad weather makes it difficult [for people] to work outdoors.
Generally:
An infinitive without an agent should refer to people in general.

A: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble.
Here, the infinitive in red is not immediately preceded by an agent.
As a result, the red infinitive should refer to people in general.
But the intended agent for the red infinitive is not people in general but AN EXECUTIVE.
For this reason, the structure is not valid.

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Mitch Hunt
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GMATGuruNY@gmail.com

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[quote="GMATGuruNY"]
Mo2men wrote:
Dear GMATGuru,
An RC passage in the OG13:
The complexity of these relationships makes it unlikely that a system of import relief laws will meet the strategic needs.
Here, the that-clause in blue serves to express the induced action.
Hi Mitch,

Thanks for your explanation

For the sentence above, where is the agent? is correct to say 'for people' here?

Thank

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[quote="Mo2men"]
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Mo2men wrote:
Dear GMATGuru,
An RC passage in the OG13:
The complexity of these relationships makes it unlikely that a system of import relief laws will meet the strategic needs.
Here, the that-clause in blue serves to express the induced action.
Hi Mitch,

Thanks for your explanation

For the sentence above, where is the agent? is correct to say 'for people' here?

Thank
A that-clause includes its own subject and verb and thus does not require an additional agent.
In the blue that-clause above, the subject for will meet (verb) is a system of import relief laws.
Since it is clear that A SYSTEM will meet the strategic needs, no additional agent is required.
An infinitive requires an agent so that a reader understands who or what is performing the infinitive action.

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Mitch Hunt
Private Tutor for the GMAT and GRE
GMATGuruNY@gmail.com

If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon.

Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance.
For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com.
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one problem at at time, and narrow it down to the correct choice! To begin, let's take a closer look at the original question, and highlight any major differences we spot in orange:

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

After a quick glance over the options, we have a few areas we can focus on. However, this is a question where the entire sentence is underlined, so we need to treat this differently than we do other questions! Whenever you see a question with the entire sentence underlined, there are a few areas you should pay attention to first to narrow down your options:

1. Modifiers
2. Parallelism
3. Meaning
4. Structure


Let's start with #3 on our list: meaning. There is also another glaring difference we see throughout each of the options: PRONOUNS! There are a LOT of pronouns in these sentences, so let's do a quick check to make sure all the pronouns have clear antecedents, and rule out any that don't:

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

first "it" = refers to "course of action" --> OK
second "it" = doesn't refer to anything, so we call this a "dummy pronoun" --> WRONG
"them" = refers to "signs of incipient trouble" --> OK

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

"one" = unclear; could refer to either "An executive" or "a course of action" --> WRONG
"ones" = misleading; changes meaning from referring to "signs of incipient trouble" to some other signs we haven't mentioned yet --> WRONG

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

"they" = unclear; could refer to "An executive," "a course of action," or "signs of incipient trouble" --> WRONG
"it" = refers back to "a course of action" --> OK

D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

"it" = refers to "a course of action" --> OK
first "them" = refers to "Executives" --> WRONG (see below)
second "them" = refers to "signs" --> WRONG (see below)

So why are both "them" pronouns wrong? Because placing two of the same pronoun so close together is confusing to readers. It's too ambiguous which "them" is referring to which antecedent. Yes, you could do the hard work and figure it out, but reading shouldn't require the reader to do the heavy lifting.

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

"one" = refers to "a course of action" --> OK
"them" = refers to "signs of incipient trouble" --> OK

Well there you have it - option E is the correct choice! It's the only sentence that used clear pronouns.


Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.

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