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Register now and save up to $200 Available with Beat the GMAT members only code • Free Trial & Practice Exam BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE Available with Beat the GMAT members only code • 5 Day FREE Trial Study Smarter, Not Harder Available with Beat the GMAT members only code • 1 Hour Free BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE Available with Beat the GMAT members only code • Free Practice Test & Review How would you score if you took the GMAT Available with Beat the GMAT members only code ## Ryunosuke Akutagawa This topic has 7 expert replies and 16 member replies Goto page • 1, • 2 imskpwr Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 14 Sep 2011 Posted: 377 messages Followed by: 1 members Upvotes: 10 Target GMAT Score: 750 #### Ryunosuke Akutagawa Sun Jun 17, 2012 5:46 am Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. c Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and d Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as OG 13 Q79 C is correct, but Why is "d" incorrect. Need free GMAT or MBA advice from an expert? Register for Beat The GMAT now and post your question in these forums! iMyself Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 13 Oct 2015 Posted: 53 messages Sat Oct 29, 2016 10:02 am Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to Hi Expert, Here is the correct sentence: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction. It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND. As the correct answer is C, China and Japan simultaneously modify ‘knowledge of the literatures of Europe'. If “China and Japan” simultaneously modify “knowledge of blah blah blah”, I can surely say that “China and Japan” is a modifier. So, there should have a COMMA after the word “Japan”, right? If there is NO COMMA after “Japan”, then “was instrumental in his development as a writer” will be the modifier along with “China and Japan”. If “China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer” is a modifier, then the “adverbial modifier (informing)” will not make the Cause and effect situation. So, how can we legitimate answer option C as correct? An Insight from Ron: x, y, and z are the list of 3 things. But, (x, y and z) are not the list of 3 things. Alternately, “y and z” simultaneously modify ‘X’ Thank you. Nina1987 Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 15 Dec 2015 Posted: 79 messages Followed by: 1 members GMAT Score: 750 Sun May 08, 2016 3:36 am @Mitch, @Brent and other experts: So is D incorrect simply cause we don't know if 'it' refers to knowledge or development? Thanks ### GMAT/MBA Expert Ali Tariq GMAT Instructor Joined 09 Nov 2016 Posted: 258 messages Followed by: 10 members Upvotes: 87 Wed Jan 25, 2017 7:14 am Quote: Ryonosuke Akutagawa's knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China, and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. A) that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as (B) that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed both his literary style as well as (C) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and (D) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as (E) Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to Major issue with D is not the pronoun ambiguity but the ambiguity in comparison. in GMAT SC pronoun ambiguity is not an issue, If you can tell the referent of a pronoun from context. Ambiguity in comparison is. Because of ambiguity in comparison, two interpretations are possible. As the comparison is not crystal clear in D, cross it out. _________________ GMAT SC tutor in person in Lahore and online ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMATGuruNY GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 13722 messages Followed by: 1802 members Upvotes: 13060 GMAT Score: 790 Wed Jan 25, 2017 4:47 am iMyself wrote: It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND. This is SC79 in the OG13. In my edition of the OG13, a comma appears after China, as follows: Quote: Ryonosuke Akutagawa's knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China, and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. A) that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as (B) that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed both his literary style as well as (C) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and (D) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as (E) Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to In A and E, were (plural) does not agree with knowledge (singular). as well as is a PREPOSITION. It cannot serve as a substitute for and, which is a CONJUNCTION. B: both his literary style as well as the content Here, as well as incorrectly serves as a substitute for and. Incorrect: both X as well as Y Correct: both X and Y Eliminate B. D: Ryonosuke Akutagawa's knowledge...was instrumental in his development, as it informed his literary style Here, it is not crystal clear whether it serves to refer to knowledge or to development. Since C avoids this issue and is free of errors, eliminate D and choose C. The correct answer is C. _________________ Mitch Hunt GMAT Private Tutor GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "UPVOTE" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. Last edited by GMATGuruNY on Wed Jan 25, 2017 8:02 am; edited 1 time in total Thanked by: moosehead Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now. iMyself Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 13 Oct 2015 Posted: 53 messages Tue Jan 24, 2017 4:19 pm iMyself wrote: Hi @Marty Murray, Do you think that THIS sentence is correct? I think THIS sentence doesn't make any sense! Can I've your attention here? Thank you so much for your kind and nice response in another threads. iMyself wrote: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to Hi Expert, Here is the correct sentence: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction. It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND. As the correct answer is C, China and Japan simultaneously modify ‘knowledge of the literatures of Europe'. If “China and Japan” simultaneously modify “knowledge of blah blah blah”, I can surely say that “China and Japan” is a modifier. So, there should have a COMMA after the word “Japan”, right? If there is NO COMMA after “Japan”, then “was instrumental in his development as a writer” will be the modifier along with “China and Japan”. If “China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer” is a modifier, then the “adverbial modifier (informing)” will not make the Cause and effect situation. So, how can we legitimate answer option C as correct? An Insight from Ron: x, y, and z are the list of 3 things. But, (x, y and z) are not the list of 3 things. Alternately, “y and z” simultaneously modify ‘X’ Thank you. Hi Expert, can i have a response in this question? Thank you all... iMyself Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 13 Oct 2015 Posted: 53 messages Fri Nov 04, 2016 8:14 am Hi @Marty Murray, Do you think that THIS sentence is correct? I think THIS sentence doesn't make any sense! Can I've your attention here? Thank you so much for your kind and nice response in another threads. iMyself wrote: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to Hi Expert, Here is the correct sentence: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction. It seems from the non-underlined part that Europe, China and X (unknown) is not the list of 3 things because there is no COMMA before the final AND. As the correct answer is C, China and Japan simultaneously modify ‘knowledge of the literatures of Europe'. If “China and Japan” simultaneously modify “knowledge of blah blah blah”, I can surely say that “China and Japan” is a modifier. So, there should have a COMMA after the word “Japan”, right? If there is NO COMMA after “Japan”, then “was instrumental in his development as a writer” will be the modifier along with “China and Japan”. If “China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer” is a modifier, then the “adverbial modifier (informing)” will not make the Cause and effect situation. So, how can we legitimate answer option C as correct? An Insight from Ron: x, y, and z are the list of 3 things. But, (x, y and z) are not the list of 3 things. Alternately, “y and z” simultaneously modify ‘X’ Thank you. GMAT Kolaveri Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 23 Mar 2012 Posted: 287 messages Followed by: 6 members Upvotes: 60 Target GMAT Score: 730 Sat Jun 23, 2012 7:20 pm Quote: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction. that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to U can narrow it down to C and D. Why C is correct? This is one of the most known format on the GMAT [ Clause , +ing form] In this form the ing form always modifies the clause preceding it. And this could be in any one of the below two formats The ing form of the verb either describes or presents the results of the clause preceding it. The company won the $$contract, making the company the largest software exporter. [result] The company won the$$$ contract, using the CEO's contacts.[describes]

Why is D wrong?
This has pronoun error as well as comparison error. I have highlighted this in the option.

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mv12 Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Sat Jun 23, 2012 11:11 am
Ans should be C.

karthikgmat Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Sat Jun 23, 2012 1:18 am
D is changing meaning of the sentence. Yes causal relationship as imkspwr said.

imskpwr Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Fri Jun 22, 2012 11:07 pm
after a while, I found the real problem with D is that it unnecessarily causes Causation.

Result(Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer), Cause(as it informed his literary style as much as )........INCORRECT MEANING.

CAUSE(Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer), RESULT(informing both his literary style and )...............CORRECT MEANING.

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jimmyjimmy Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Tue Jun 19, 2012 2:34 am
jimmyjimmy wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to
From parallelism, we have already eliminated (A) & (B), as discussed above. The subject of the sentence, “knowledge”, is singular, so the verb must be singular: “was”, not “were.” That eliminates (E). This leaves (C) and (D), which have many similarities. One difference is the ending. (C) ends simply with “and”, correctly completing the “both … and” structure. (D) avoids the word “both”, and instead ends with “as much as.” The phrase “as much as” is a comparative phrase -- “the teacher like me as much as she like you!” - but in this context, we are not performing a comparison. The two items in question are Akutagawa’s literary style and the content of his fiction. These both were informed by his vast knowledge of literature, but there’s nothing in the sentence that suggests a comparison is in order. (D) also has that awkward phrase “as it informed”, instead of the shorter and more direct “informing” in (C). For these reasons, (D) is incorrect, and (C) is by far the best answer choice.-mike (courtesy)

jimmyjimmy Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Tue Jun 19, 2012 2:24 am
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

imskpwr Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Sun Jun 17, 2012 11:22 pm
patanjali.purpose wrote:
Could you share the complete question pls.

patanjali.purpose Legendary Member
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Sun Jun 17, 2012 7:29 am
imskpwr wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

c Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as

OG 13 Q79

C is correct, but Why is "d" incorrect.
Could you share the complete question pls.

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