• Target Test Prep
    5-Day Free Trial
    5-day free, full-access trial TTP Quant

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Target Test Prep
  • Veritas Prep
    Free Veritas GMAT Class
    Experience Lesson 1 Live Free

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Veritas Prep
  • Kaplan Test Prep
    Free Practice Test & Review
    How would you score if you took the GMAT

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Kaplan Test Prep
  • Economist Test Prep
    Free Trial & Practice Exam
    BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Economist Test Prep
  • PrepScholar GMAT
    5 Day FREE Trial
    Study Smarter, Not Harder

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    PrepScholar GMAT
  • Varsity Tutors
    Award-winning private GMAT tutoring
    Register now and save up to $200

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Varsity Tutors
  • EMPOWERgmat Slider
    1 Hour Free
    BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    EMPOWERgmat Slider
  • Magoosh
    Magoosh
    Study with Magoosh GMAT prep

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Magoosh
  • e-gmat Exclusive Offer
    Get 300+ Practice Questions
    25 Video lessons and 6 Webinars for FREE

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    e-gmat Exclusive Offer

RC: OG-12: very specific doubt

This topic has 2 expert replies and 3 member replies
buoyant Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Default Avatar
Joined
02 Mar 2013
Posted:
106 messages
Upvotes:
4

RC: OG-12: very specific doubt

Post Sun Sep 01, 2013 11:08 am
After evidence was obtained in the 1920s that
the universe is expanding, it became reasonable
to ask: Will the universe continue to expand
indefinitely, or is there enough mass in it for the
mutual attraction of its constituents to bring this
expansion to a halt? It can be calculated that
the critical density of matter needed to brake the
expansion and “close” the universe is equivalent
to three hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. But the
density of the observable universe-luminous matter
in the form of galaxies-comes to only a fraction
of this. If the expansion of the universe is to stop,
there must be enough invisible matter in the
universe to exceed the luminous matter in density
by a factor of roughly 70.

Our contribution to the search for this “missing
matter” has been to study the rotational velocity
of galaxies at various distances from their center
of rotation. It has been known for some time that
outside the bright nucleus of a typical spiral galaxy
luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the
center. If luminosity were a true indicator of mass,
most of the mass would be concentrated toward
the center. Outside the nucleus the rotational
velocity would decrease geometrically with distance
from the center, in conformity with Kepler’s law.
Instead we have found that the rotational velocity
in spiral galaxies either remains constant with
increasing distance from the center or increases
slightly. This unexpected result indicates that the
falloff in luminous mass with distance from the
center is balanced by an increase in nonluminous
mass.

Our findings suggest that as much as 90
percent of the mass of the universe is not radiating
at any wavelength with enough intensity to be
detected on the Earth. Such dark matter could be
in the form of extremely dim stars of low mass,
of large planets like Jupiter, or of black holes,
either small or massive. While it has not yet been
determined whether this mass is sufficient to
close the universe, some physicists consider it
significant that estimates are converging on the
critical value.

116. The authors’ study indicates that, in comparison with
the outermost regions of a typical spiral galaxy, the
region just outside the nucleus can be characterized
as having
(A) higher rotational velocity and higher luminosity
(B) lower rotational velocity and higher luminosity
(C) lower rotational velocity and lower luminosity
(D) similar rotational velocity and higher luminosity
(E) similar rotational velocity and similar luminosity

I chose the correct answer . however, I am still having doubt on answer choice B.

The portion of the passage says that "Instead we have found that the rotational velocity
in spiral galaxies either remains constant with increasing distance from the center or increases
slightly."
Doesn't it also mean that the rotational velocity near the nucleus may also be lower than that in outermost region?

Can someone please explain?

  • +1 Upvote Post
  • Quote
  • Flag
Need free GMAT or MBA advice from an expert? Register for Beat The GMAT now and post your question in these forums!
ela4490 Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts Default Avatar
Joined
13 Sep 2016
Posted:
1 messages
Target GMAT Score:
750
Top Reply
Post Wed Oct 26, 2016 10:03 am
[quote="buoyant"][color=blue]116. The authors’ study indicates that, in comparison with the outermost regions of a typical spiral galaxy, the region just outside the nucleus can be characterized as having
(A) higher rotational velocity and higher luminosity
(B) lower rotational velocity and higher luminosity
(C) lower rotational velocity and lower luminosity
(D) similar rotational velocity and higher luminosity
(E) similar rotational velocity and similar luminosity[/color]

I chose the correct answer . however, I am still having doubt on answer choice B.

The portion of the passage says that "Instead we have found that the rotational velocity
in spiral galaxies either remains constant with increasing distance from the center or increases
slightly." Doesn't it also mean that the rotational velocity near the nucleus may also be lower than that in outermost region?

Can someone please explain?[/quote]
[quote="Java_85"]Isn't E the OA?[/quote]
[quote="Mike@Magoosh"]First of all, [b]Java_85[/b], the passage very clearly states that "[color=darkblue]luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center[/color]." Thus, the "[color=darkblue]region just outside the nucleus[/color]" would have a high luminosity, higher than anything out toward the edge. Thus, we know we need an answer with "[color=darkblue]higher luminosity[/color]", [b](A)[/b], [b](B)[/b], or [b](D)[/b]. As it happens, the OA = [spoiler][b](D)[/b][/spoiler].

Now, [b]bouyant[/b], what you ask is an excellent question. The text says: "[color=darkblue]the rotational velocity in spiral galaxies either remains constant with increasing distance from the center or increases slightly[/color]." So, a region toward the center would have a rotational velocity that is about the same or slightly lower than that toward the outer reaches. Two possibilities: (1) about the same, or (2) slightly lower.

Now, think about [b](B)[/b] vs. [b](D)[/b]
[color=darkblue](B) lower rotational velocity
(D) similar rotational velocity [/color]
Which one of those includes both possibilities? Choice [b](B)[/b] definitely includes (2) but doesn't include (1). By contrast, choice [b](D)[/b] includes both (1) and (2), because both "[color=blue]slightly higher[/color]" and "[color=blue]slightly lower[/color]" are included in the idea of "[color=blue]similar[/color]".
That's why the OA is a better answer.
Mike Smile[/quote]

[color=red][b]luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center[/b][/color]

Doesn't this means that luminosity decreases??

  • +1 Upvote Post
  • Quote
  • Flag

GMAT/MBA Expert

Mike@Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined
28 Dec 2011
Posted:
768 messages
Followed by:
137 members
Upvotes:
387
Top Reply
Post Wed Oct 26, 2016 2:33 pm
ela4490 wrote:
luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center

Doesn't this means that luminosity decreases??
Dear ela4490,
I'm happy to respond. Smile

The short answer is "yes," although this idiom means something more specific.

To decrease simply means to go down, to decrease in value. The idiom "to fall off" or "to drop off" means to decrease rapidly.

If the amount in my bank account simply decreases, I may have $500 the first week, then $400 the second week, then $300, etc. That's a nice moderate decrease.

If the amount in my bank account falls off, maybe I have $500 on Monday of the first week, but say by Wednesday of the first week it is down to $37. In other words, there was a huge decrease right at the beginning. That is an extreme example of "falling off."

To say "luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center" is to say that up close, there is high luminosity, then a short distance away it's much lower, then it continues to get even lower as we move farther away.

My friend, here is a set of GMAT Idiom Flashcards. It doesn't include this idiom, but at least the basic ones.

The best way to learn all these subtle idioms is to read. See this blog:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

Does all this make sense?
Mike Smile

_________________
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
http://gmat.magoosh.com/

  • +1 Upvote Post
  • Quote
  • Flag
ela4490 Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts Default Avatar
Joined
13 Sep 2016
Posted:
1 messages
Target GMAT Score:
750
Post Wed Oct 26, 2016 10:03 am
[quote="buoyant"][color=blue]116. The authors’ study indicates that, in comparison with the outermost regions of a typical spiral galaxy, the region just outside the nucleus can be characterized as having
(A) higher rotational velocity and higher luminosity
(B) lower rotational velocity and higher luminosity
(C) lower rotational velocity and lower luminosity
(D) similar rotational velocity and higher luminosity
(E) similar rotational velocity and similar luminosity[/color]

I chose the correct answer . however, I am still having doubt on answer choice B.

The portion of the passage says that "Instead we have found that the rotational velocity
in spiral galaxies either remains constant with increasing distance from the center or increases
slightly." Doesn't it also mean that the rotational velocity near the nucleus may also be lower than that in outermost region?

Can someone please explain?[/quote]
[quote="Java_85"]Isn't E the OA?[/quote]
[quote="Mike@Magoosh"]First of all, [b]Java_85[/b], the passage very clearly states that "[color=darkblue]luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center[/color]." Thus, the "[color=darkblue]region just outside the nucleus[/color]" would have a high luminosity, higher than anything out toward the edge. Thus, we know we need an answer with "[color=darkblue]higher luminosity[/color]", [b](A)[/b], [b](B)[/b], or [b](D)[/b]. As it happens, the OA = [spoiler][b](D)[/b][/spoiler].

Now, [b]bouyant[/b], what you ask is an excellent question. The text says: "[color=darkblue]the rotational velocity in spiral galaxies either remains constant with increasing distance from the center or increases slightly[/color]." So, a region toward the center would have a rotational velocity that is about the same or slightly lower than that toward the outer reaches. Two possibilities: (1) about the same, or (2) slightly lower.

Now, think about [b](B)[/b] vs. [b](D)[/b]
[color=darkblue](B) lower rotational velocity
(D) similar rotational velocity [/color]
Which one of those includes both possibilities? Choice [b](B)[/b] definitely includes (2) but doesn't include (1). By contrast, choice [b](D)[/b] includes both (1) and (2), because both "[color=blue]slightly higher[/color]" and "[color=blue]slightly lower[/color]" are included in the idea of "[color=blue]similar[/color]".
That's why the OA is a better answer.
Mike Smile[/quote]

[color=red][b]luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center[/b][/color]

Doesn't this means that luminosity decreases??

  • +1 Upvote Post
  • Quote
  • Flag

GMAT/MBA Expert

Mike@Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined
28 Dec 2011
Posted:
768 messages
Followed by:
137 members
Upvotes:
387
Post Wed Oct 26, 2016 2:33 pm
ela4490 wrote:
luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center

Doesn't this means that luminosity decreases??
Dear ela4490,
I'm happy to respond. Smile

The short answer is "yes," although this idiom means something more specific.

To decrease simply means to go down, to decrease in value. The idiom "to fall off" or "to drop off" means to decrease rapidly.

If the amount in my bank account simply decreases, I may have $500 the first week, then $400 the second week, then $300, etc. That's a nice moderate decrease.

If the amount in my bank account falls off, maybe I have $500 on Monday of the first week, but say by Wednesday of the first week it is down to $37. In other words, there was a huge decrease right at the beginning. That is an extreme example of "falling off."

To say "luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center" is to say that up close, there is high luminosity, then a short distance away it's much lower, then it continues to get even lower as we move farther away.

My friend, here is a set of GMAT Idiom Flashcards. It doesn't include this idiom, but at least the basic ones.

The best way to learn all these subtle idioms is to read. See this blog:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

Does all this make sense?
Mike Smile

_________________
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
http://gmat.magoosh.com/

  • +1 Upvote Post
  • Quote
  • Flag
buoyant Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Default Avatar
Joined
02 Mar 2013
Posted:
106 messages
Upvotes:
4
Post Sat Sep 07, 2013 6:59 am
Yes. That makes sense.
Thank you for the nice explanation,Mike !

  • +1 Upvote Post
  • Quote
  • Flag

Best Conversation Starters

1 lheiannie07 116 topics
2 LUANDATO 68 topics
3 swerve 65 topics
4 ardz24 65 topics
5 Roland2rule 64 topics
See More Top Beat The GMAT Members...

Most Active Experts

1 image description Scott@TargetTestPrep

Target Test Prep

198 posts
2 image description Brent@GMATPrepNow

GMAT Prep Now Teacher

181 posts
3 image description Jeff@TargetTestPrep

Target Test Prep

168 posts
4 image description Rich.C@EMPOWERgma...

EMPOWERgmat

134 posts
5 image description GMATGuruNY

The Princeton Review Teacher

119 posts
See More Top Beat The GMAT Experts