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OG 2015- Hard Question

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fiza gupta Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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OG 2015- Hard Question

Post Sat Oct 15, 2016 11:11 am
Elapsed Time: 00:00
  • Lap #[LAPCOUNT] ([LAPTIME])
    Two modes of argumentation have been used on behalf of women's emancipation in Western societies. Arguments in what could be called the "relational" feminist tradition maintain the doctrine of "equality in difference" or equity as distinct from equality. They posit that biological distinctions between the sexes result in a necessary sexual division of labor in the family and throughout society and that women's pro-creative labor is currently undervalued by society, to the disadvantage of women. By contrast, the individualist feminist tradition emphasizes individual human rights and celebrates women's quest for personal autonomy, while downplaying the importance of gender roles and minimizing discussion of childbearing and its attendant responsibilities.

    Before the late nineteenth century, these views coexisted within the feminist movement, often within the writings of the same individual. Between 1890 and 1920,however, relational feminism, which had been the dominant strain in feminist thought, and which still predominates among European and non Western feminists, lost ground in England and the United States. Because the concept of individual rights was already well established in the Anglo-Saxon legal and political tradition, individualist feminism came to predominate in English-speaking countries. At the same time, the goals of the two approaches began to seem increasingly irreconcilable. Individualist feminists began to advocate a totally gender-blind system with equal rights for all Relational feminists, while agreeing that equal educational and economic opportunities outside the home should be available for all women, continued to emphasize women's special contributions to society as homemakers and mothers; they demanded special treatment for women, including protective legislation for women workers, state-sponsored maternity benefits, and paid compensation for housework.

    Relational arguments have a major pitfall: because they underline women's physiological and psychological distinctiveness, they are often appropriated by political adversaries and used to endorse male privilege. But the individualist approach, by attacking gender roles, denying the significance of physiological difference, and condemning existing familial institutions as hopelessly patriarchal, has often simply treated as irrelevant the family roles important to many women. If the individualist framework, with its claim for women's autonomy, could be harmonized with the family-oriented concerns of relational feminists, a more fruitful model for contemporary feminist politics could emerge.

    The passage suggests that the author of the passage believes which of the following?

    (A) The predominance of individualist feminism in English-speaking countries is a historical
    phenomenon, the causes of which have not yet been investigated.

    (B) The individualist and relational feminist views are irreconcilable, given their theoretical differences concerning the foundations of society.

    (C) A consensus concerning the direction of future feminist politics will probably soon emerge, given the awareness among feminists of the need for cooperation among women.

    (D) Political adversaries of feminism often misuse arguments predicated on differences between the sexes to argue that the existing social system should be maintained.

    (E) Relational feminism provides the best theoretical framework for contemporary feminist politics, but individualist feminism could contribute much toward refining and strengthening modern feminist thought.

    OA: D

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    crackverbal Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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    Post Sat Oct 15, 2016 11:36 pm
    For longer passages, it is better to map the passage before attempting questions. This will help you locate the paragraph that you must refer to when solving a detail question. Also, it is helpful when solving a primary purpose question - this question will appear on almost every RC passage.

    Here is my map for the passage -
    Para 1 - talks about relation feminism and individual feminism
    Para 2 - individual feminism dominated in English speaking countries + goals of 2 approaches became irreconcilable.
    Para 3 - pitfalls of 2 approaches + final statement - author's main suggestion.

    Let us look at each of the answer options -
    A - this is talked about in the 2nd paragraph. Nowhere does the author say that the causes have not been investigated. In fact the author gives a cause - "Because the concept of individual rights was already well established in the Anglo-Saxon legal and political tradition, individualist feminism came to predominate in English-speaking countries".
    B - The author does not believe this statement. Look at the main suggestion of the author in the very last sentence of the passage - "If the individualist framework, with its claim for women's autonomy, could be harmonized with the family-oriented concerns of relational feminists"
    C - Again look at the last sentence of the paragraph - "a more fruitful model for contemporary feminist politics could emerge." Nowhere does the author say "soon emerge". Also, the statement made in the passage is a conditional one. The author does not say "will emerge". We cannot infer this also - "awareness among feminists of the need for cooperation". All we know is that their goals became irreconcilable.
    D - Correct answer. "they are often appropriated by political adversaries and used to endorse male privilege. "
    E - Nowhere does the author mention that relational feminism is "best".

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    richachampion Legendary Member
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    Post Sun Oct 16, 2016 1:06 am
    The decision between Option B and Option D is not that lucid. In many RC passages there are two speakers one is the main author who is the writer of the passage and the second speaker who is not the author of the passage, but here the case is different. Paragraph 1, 2 and 3 all have the same author that makes it difficult and very close to decide between Option B and D.

    Quote:
    (B) The individualist and relational feminist views are irreconcilable, given their theoretical differences concerning the foundations of society.
    CITATION FROM THE PASSAGE -
    At the same time, the goals of the two approaches began to seem increasingly irreconcilable. Individualist feminists began to advocate a totally gender-blind system with equal rights for all Relational feminists, while agreeing that equal educational and economic opportunities outside the home should be available for all women, continued to emphasize women's special contributions to society as homemakers and mothers; they demanded special treatment for women, including protective legislation for women workers, state-sponsored maternity benefits, and paid compensation for housework.

    Noticeably in many cases they tweak the answer by picking some statement from the passage that looks identical and change some information that also changes the meaning, but that has also not happened in this option.

    Quote:
    (D) Political adversaries of feminism often misuse arguments predicated on differences between the sexes to argue that the existing social system should be maintained.
    CITATION FROM THE PASSAGE -
    Relational arguments have a major pitfall: because they underline women's physiological and psychological distinctiveness, they are often appropriated by political adversaries and used to endorse male privilege.

    @Crackverbal, Are you saying whatever is given in the last paragraph over rides anything stated in the other paragraphs?

    Honestly I fell for Option B in this.

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    richachampion Legendary Member
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    Post Fri Oct 21, 2016 5:14 am
    Bumping this thread for experts reviews.

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    crackverbal Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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    Post Mon Oct 24, 2016 6:29 am
    richachampion wrote:
    CITATION FROM THE PASSAGE -
    At the same time, the goals of the two approaches began to seem increasingly irreconcilable.
    The passage clearly states "began to seem" not "became". You have to read the sentences carefully.

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    sanghaha Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts Default Avatar
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    Post Sun Nov 06, 2016 1:42 am
    richachampion wrote:
    The decision between Option B and Option D is not that lucid. In many RC passages there are two speakers one is the main author who is the writer of the passage and the second speaker who is not the author of the passage, but here the case is different. Paragraph 1, 2 and 3 all have the same author that makes it difficult and very close to decide between Option B and D.

    Quote:
    (B) The individualist and relational feminist views are irreconcilable, given their theoretical differences concerning the foundations of society.
    CITATION FROM THE PASSAGE -
    At the same time, the goals of the two approaches began to seem increasingly irreconcilable. Individualist feminists began to advocate a totally gender-blind system with equal rights for all Relational feminists, while agreeing that equal educational and economic opportunities outside the home should be available for all women, continued to emphasize women's special contributions to society as homemakers and mothers; they demanded special treatment for women, including protective legislation for women workers, state-sponsored maternity benefits, and paid compensation for housework.

    Noticeably in many cases they tweak the answer by picking some statement from the passage that looks identical and change some information that also changes the meaning, but that has also not happened in this option.

    Quote:
    (D) Political adversaries of feminism often misuse arguments predicated on differences between the sexes to argue that the existing social system should be maintained.
    CITATION FROM THE PASSAGE -
    Relational arguments have a major pitfall: because they underline women's physiological and psychological distinctiveness, they are often appropriated by political adversaries and used to endorse male privilege.

    @Crackverbal, Are you saying whatever is given in the last paragraph over rides anything stated in the other paragraphs?

    Honestly I fell for Option B in this.
    While your analysis for both B and D is spot on, you need to pay attention to the subtlety that the differences "seemed" irreconcilable. The last line of the passage clearly says that the two approaches should be reconciled ("harmonized"). So clearly the author does not believe that they are indeed irreconcilable.

    Another thing that put off my alarm bells was that the option D seems to be slightly differently phrased from the passage - this is obviously a decoy. Option B quotes directly from the passage - looking out for these patterns can help analyze certain options in more detail.

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