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Many of the earliest known images of Hindu

This topic has 2 expert replies and 1 member reply
deepakk Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts Default Avatar
Joined
22 Aug 2013
Posted:
24 messages

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu

Post Mon Dec 09, 2013 10:16 am
Elapsed Time: 00:00
  • Lap #[LAPCOUNT] ([LAPTIME])
    Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan
    empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.
    A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
    B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
    C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
    D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
    E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

    How to approach this question?
    I know its among B,D,E
    But I am not able to find the correct answer.

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    GMAT/MBA Expert

    Post Mon Dec 09, 2013 2:52 pm
    deepakk wrote:
    Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan
    empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.
    A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
    B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
    C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
    D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
    E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

    How to approach this question?
    I know its among B,D,E
    But I am not able to find the correct answer.
    Dear deepakk,
    I'm happy to help. Smile

    First of all, we don't want to say that the Kushan empire was "fashioned either from spotted sandstone", so we don't want a participial phrase there, modifying the empire. Choice (A) & (B) & (C) are all wrong because of this.

    To choose between (D) & (E), we need to use the "one outside or twice inside" rule for parallelism. See this blog:
    http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-parallelism-once-outside-or-twice-inside/
    The "either ... or" split contrasts the different materials used. We could have either ...
    from either X or Y (the once outside option)
    or
    either from X or from Y (the twice inside option)
    Choice (D) misplaces the "either" entirely, putting it in front of "fashioned", which makes no sense. Choice (E) has the correct "twice inside" construction. Choice (E) is the best answer.

    Does all this make sense?
    Mike Smile

    _________________
    Magoosh GMAT Instructor
    http://gmat.magoosh.com/

    lydiaxuxin Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts Default Avatar
    Joined
    05 Jun 2014
    Posted:
    3 messages
    Post Wed Jun 25, 2014 3:41 am
    Mike@Magoosh wrote:
    deepakk wrote:
    Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan
    empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.
    A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
    B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
    C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
    D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
    E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

    How to approach this question?
    I know its among B,D,E
    But I am not able to find the correct answer.
    Dear deepakk,
    I'm happy to help. Smile

    First of all, we don't want to say that the Kushan empire was "fashioned either from spotted sandstone", so we don't want a participial phrase there, modifying the empire. Choice (A) & (B) & (C) are all wrong because of this.

    To choose between (D) & (E), we need to use the "one outside or twice inside" rule for parallelism. See this blog:
    http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-parallelism-once-outside-or-twice-inside/
    The "either ... or" split contrasts the different materials used. We could have either ...
    from either X or Y (the once outside option)
    or
    either from X or from Y (the twice inside option)
    Choice (D) misplaces the "either" entirely, putting it in front of "fashioned", which makes no sense. Choice (E) has the correct "twice inside" construction. Choice (E) is the best answer.

    Does all this make sense?
    Mike Smile
    But does "fashioned" in A&B must modify empire? in the sentence I read in other post:
    John left the building, excited that he had just aced the GMAT
    clearly "excited" modifies John, not the building

    I am confused is there any specific rule for comma+v-ed that it should modify the nearest noun?

    GMAT/MBA Expert

    Post Wed Jun 25, 2014 12:59 pm
    lydiaxuxin wrote:
    But does "fashioned" in A&B must modify empire? in the sentence I read in other post:
    John left the building, excited that he had just aced the GMAT
    clearly "excited" modifies John, not the building

    I am confused is there any specific rule for comma+v-ed that it should modify the nearest noun?
    Dear lydiaxuxin,
    I'm happy to respond. Smile

    As you may know, for most noun modifiers, the Modifier Touch Rule is in effect. This is a very important rule to know. See:
    http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/modifiers-on-the-gmat-sentence-correction/

    What you are calling the verb-ed is technically called the past participle. It's good to learn the grammatical names if you want to understand grammar in depth. Participles are considerably more flexible --- they can be noun-modifiers, verb-modifiers, etc. In the sentence you quote, it's not clear whether "excited" is a noun-modifier modifying "John," or a verb-modifier modifying the verb or the entire clause. Verb-modifiers are NOT subject to the Touch Rule. Furthermore, in that simple sentence there are only two nouns, and it's clear that "building" is the not target. That sentence is unambiguous.

    Now, think about (A): Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from....
    That's a lot of nouns!! The modifier beginning "fashioned" is clearly a noun-modifier. The default assumption is that the target noun, the noun modified, is the noun it touches, "Kushan empire." Now, if the predicate were short, the target noun could be the subject, but this is a LONG predicate with whole string of nouns, any one of which grammatically could be the target noun if we are suspending the Touch Rule. There is, at the very least, some ambiguity about the target of the modifier, and this ambiguity is fully resolved by changing the past participle noun-modifier "fashioned" to a full past tense verb "were fashioned" in parallel to the first verb: then quite obviously, the subject is the same, and we know exactly what "were fashioned."

    Also, notice that all the answers other than the OA, (D), completely fail the Once Outside, Twice Inside rule for Parallelism. For more on that, see:
    http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-parallelism-once-outside-or-twice-inside/

    Does all this make sense?
    Mike Smile

    _________________
    Magoosh GMAT Instructor
    http://gmat.magoosh.com/

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