• Economist Test Prep
    Free Trial & Practice Exam
    BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Economist Test Prep
  • e-gmat Exclusive Offer
    Get 300+ Practice Questions
    25 Video lessons and 6 Webinars for FREE

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    e-gmat Exclusive Offer
  • PrepScholar GMAT
    5 Day FREE Trial
    Study Smarter, Not Harder

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    PrepScholar GMAT
  • Magoosh
    Magoosh
    Study with Magoosh GMAT prep

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Magoosh
  • Kaplan Test Prep
    Free Practice Test & Review
    How would you score if you took the GMAT

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Kaplan Test Prep
  • Target Test Prep
    5-Day Free Trial
    5-day free, full-access trial TTP Quant

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Target Test Prep
  • Varsity Tutors
    Award-winning private GMAT tutoring
    Register now and save up to $200

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Varsity Tutors
  • Veritas Prep
    Free Veritas GMAT Class
    Experience Lesson 1 Live Free

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Veritas Prep
  • EMPOWERgmat Slider
    1 Hour Free
    BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    EMPOWERgmat Slider

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu

This topic has 2 expert replies and 1 member reply
deepakk Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts Default Avatar
Joined
22 Aug 2013
Posted:
24 messages

Many of the earliest known images of Hindu

Post Mon Dec 09, 2013 10:16 am
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan
empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.
A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

How to approach this question?
I know its among B,D,E
But I am not able to find the correct answer.

  • +1 Upvote Post
  • Quote
  • Flag
Need free GMAT or MBA advice from an expert? Register for Beat The GMAT now and post your question in these forums!

GMAT/MBA Expert

Mike@Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined
28 Dec 2011
Posted:
768 messages
Followed by:
137 members
Upvotes:
387
Top Reply
Post Wed Jun 25, 2014 12:59 pm
lydiaxuxin wrote:
But does "fashioned" in A&B must modify empire? in the sentence I read in other post:
John left the building, excited that he had just aced the GMAT
clearly "excited" modifies John, not the building

I am confused is there any specific rule for comma+v-ed that it should modify the nearest noun?
Dear lydiaxuxin,
I'm happy to respond. Smile

As you may know, for most noun modifiers, the Modifier Touch Rule is in effect. This is a very important rule to know. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/modifiers-on-the-gmat-sentence-correction/

What you are calling the verb-ed is technically called the past participle. It's good to learn the grammatical names if you want to understand grammar in depth. Participles are considerably more flexible --- they can be noun-modifiers, verb-modifiers, etc. In the sentence you quote, it's not clear whether "excited" is a noun-modifier modifying "John," or a verb-modifier modifying the verb or the entire clause. Verb-modifiers are NOT subject to the Touch Rule. Furthermore, in that simple sentence there are only two nouns, and it's clear that "building" is the not target. That sentence is unambiguous.

Now, think about (A): Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from....
That's a lot of nouns!! The modifier beginning "fashioned" is clearly a noun-modifier. The default assumption is that the target noun, the noun modified, is the noun it touches, "Kushan empire." Now, if the predicate were short, the target noun could be the subject, but this is a LONG predicate with whole string of nouns, any one of which grammatically could be the target noun if we are suspending the Touch Rule. There is, at the very least, some ambiguity about the target of the modifier, and this ambiguity is fully resolved by changing the past participle noun-modifier "fashioned" to a full past tense verb "were fashioned" in parallel to the first verb: then quite obviously, the subject is the same, and we know exactly what "were fashioned."

Also, notice that all the answers other than the OA, (D), completely fail the Once Outside, Twice Inside rule for Parallelism. For more on that, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-parallelism-once-outside-or-twice-inside/

Does all this make sense?
Mike Smile

_________________
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
http://gmat.magoosh.com/

  • +1 Upvote Post
  • Quote
  • Flag
lydiaxuxin Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts Default Avatar
Joined
05 Jun 2014
Posted:
3 messages
Top Reply
Post Wed Jun 25, 2014 3:41 am
Mike@Magoosh wrote:
deepakk wrote:
Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan
empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist.
A. empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
B. empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
C. empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or
D. empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from
E. empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

How to approach this question?
I know its among B,D,E
But I am not able to find the correct answer.
Dear deepakk,
I'm happy to help. Smile

First of all, we don't want to say that the Kushan empire was "fashioned either from spotted sandstone", so we don't want a participial phrase there, modifying the empire. Choice (A) & (B) & (C) are all wrong because of this.

To choose between (D) & (E), we need to use the "one outside or twice inside" rule for parallelism. See this blog:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-parallelism-once-outside-or-twice-inside/
The "either ... or" split contrasts the different materials used. We could have either ...
from either X or Y (the once outside option)
or
either from X or from Y (the twice inside option)
Choice (D) misplaces the "either" entirely, putting it in front of "fashioned", which makes no sense. Choice (E) has the correct "twice inside" construction. Choice (E) is the best answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike Smile
But does "fashioned" in A&B must modify empire? in the sentence I read in other post:
John left the building, excited that he had just aced the GMAT
clearly "excited" modifies John, not the building

I am confused is there any specific rule for comma+v-ed that it should modify the nearest noun?

  • +1 Upvote Post
  • Quote
  • Flag

GMAT/MBA Expert

Mike@Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined
28 Dec 2011
Posted:
768 messages
Followed by:
137 members
Upvotes:
387
Post Wed Jun 25, 2014 12:59 pm
lydiaxuxin wrote:
But does "fashioned" in A&B must modify empire? in the sentence I read in other post:
John left the building, excited that he had just aced the GMAT
clearly "excited" modifies John, not the building

I am confused is there any specific rule for comma+v-ed that it should modify the nearest noun?
Dear lydiaxuxin,
I'm happy to respond. Smile

As you may know, for most noun modifiers, the Modifier Touch Rule is in effect. This is a very important rule to know. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/modifiers-on-the-gmat-sentence-correction/

What you are calling the verb-ed is technically called the past participle. It's good to learn the grammatical names if you want to understand grammar in depth. Participles are considerably more flexible --- they can be noun-modifiers, verb-modifiers, etc. In the sentence you quote, it's not clear whether "excited" is a noun-modifier modifying "John," or a verb-modifier modifying the verb or the entire clause. Verb-modifiers are NOT subject to the Touch Rule. Furthermore, in that simple sentence there are only two nouns, and it's clear that "building" is the not target. That sentence is unambiguous.

Now, think about (A): Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan empire, fashioned either from....
That's a lot of nouns!! The modifier beginning "fashioned" is clearly a noun-modifier. The default assumption is that the target noun, the noun modified, is the noun it touches, "Kushan empire." Now, if the predicate were short, the target noun could be the subject, but this is a LONG predicate with whole string of nouns, any one of which grammatically could be the target noun if we are suspending the Touch Rule. There is, at the very least, some ambiguity about the target of the modifier, and this ambiguity is fully resolved by changing the past participle noun-modifier "fashioned" to a full past tense verb "were fashioned" in parallel to the first verb: then quite obviously, the subject is the same, and we know exactly what "were fashioned."

Also, notice that all the answers other than the OA, (D), completely fail the Once Outside, Twice Inside rule for Parallelism. For more on that, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-parallelism-once-outside-or-twice-inside/

Does all this make sense?
Mike Smile

_________________
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
http://gmat.magoosh.com/

  • +1 Upvote Post
  • Quote
  • Flag

Best Conversation Starters

1 lheiannie07 116 topics
2 LUANDATO 67 topics
3 swerve 66 topics
4 ardz24 61 topics
5 AAPL 59 topics
See More Top Beat The GMAT Members...

Most Active Experts

1 image description Scott@TargetTestPrep

Target Test Prep

213 posts
2 image description Brent@GMATPrepNow

GMAT Prep Now Teacher

177 posts
3 image description Jeff@TargetTestPrep

Target Test Prep

168 posts
4 image description Rich.C@EMPOWERgma...

EMPOWERgmat

133 posts
5 image description GMATGuruNY

The Princeton Review Teacher

126 posts
See More Top Beat The GMAT Experts