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## antecedents?

This topic has 3 member replies
antec0721 Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts
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22 Dec 2009
Posted:
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Test Date:
2/20/09
Target GMAT Score:
700

#### antecedents?

Thu Feb 25, 2010 1:29 am
I was looking at the following question:

In 1923, the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional, and ruling that it was a form of price fixing and, as such, an abridgment of the right of contract.

a) the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional, and
b) the Supreme Court declared as unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia, and
c) the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia,
d) a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court,
e) when the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional,

The original answer was C. The explanation in the guide explains that D is ambiguous and causes a misplaced modifier. Can someone explain this to me? Also, I am getting confused about antecedent rules. How do we know that it is referring to "minimum wage" and not "Supreme Court" or "District of Columbia"?

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samarpan_bschool Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
Joined
31 Dec 2009
Posted:
106 messages
4
Test Date:
13th Aug'11
GMAT Score:
700
Thu Feb 25, 2010 7:11 am
1. The modifier problem discussed is one that involves 'present participle' - verb + ing

Normally present participle, if preceded or followed by a COMMA, then it acts as a verb modifier, which should make sense with the subject.

In the case of option D -> Just look at the subject of the sentence - 'a minimum wage'

Can 'minimum wage' make a 'ruling' ? NO. So it is not logically correct.

2. In case of antecedents, the thumb rule is the subject of second clause refers to the subject of the main clause / object of the second clause refers to the object of the previous clause

tanviet Legendary Member
Joined
20 May 2008
Posted:
1404 messages
Followed by:
2 members
18
Thu Feb 25, 2010 3:58 am
in D, "minimum wage was declared, ruling.."

this means "wage was declare and ,at the same time,wage rule" and impossible

focus differences among answer choices to find error. last time I fail because I do not attack SC this way.

samarpan_bschool Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
Joined
31 Dec 2009
Posted:
106 messages
4
Test Date:
13th Aug'11
GMAT Score:
700
Thu Feb 25, 2010 7:11 am
1. The modifier problem discussed is one that involves 'present participle' - verb + ing

Normally present participle, if preceded or followed by a COMMA, then it acts as a verb modifier, which should make sense with the subject.

In the case of option D -> Just look at the subject of the sentence - 'a minimum wage'

Can 'minimum wage' make a 'ruling' ? NO. So it is not logically correct.

2. In case of antecedents, the thumb rule is the subject of second clause refers to the subject of the main clause / object of the second clause refers to the object of the previous clause

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