The West African lungfish uses their primitive lungs to extract oxygen from the above air, and so they can burrow deep

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The West African lungfish uses their primitive lungs to extract oxygen from the above air, and so they can burrow deep into muddy ground, surviving long periods of dormancy, an ability known as “estivation.”


(A) The West African lungfish uses their primitive lungs to extract oxygen from the above air, and so they can burrow deep into muddy ground, surviving long periods of dormancy,

(B) Using their primitive lung for the extraction of oxygen from the air above, the West African lungfish can burrow deep into muddy ground and survive long periods of dormancy, which is

(C) By using its primitive lungs to extract oxygen from the air above while burrowed deep into muddy ground, the West African lungfish can survive long periods of dormancy—

(D) In using its primitive lungs for extracting of oxygen from the above air, the West African lungfish can burrow deep into muddy ground and surviving long dormant periods

(E) By extracting oxygen from the air above by using its primitive lung, the West African lungfish, which can survive long dormant periods by burrowing deep into muddy ground,


OA C

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Option A - incorrect
The noun 'African lungfish' is singular so it should possess a singular noun, not a plural pronoun 'their.' Also, the adverbial modifier 'sirviving long periods of dormancy' explains that the fish can survive because it can take oxygen from the air not from the fact that it can still extract oxygen from air even when it is buried do in muddy ground.

Option B - incorrect
This answer choice uses the wrong pronoun 'their.' Also, it implies that using their lungs to extract oxygen allows them to burrow deep into the ground which changes the intended meaning of the sentence. And in fact, the lungfish has the ability to burrow in general; it can survive long periods of this burrowing because it can use its primitive lungs to extract oxygen from the air.

Option C - correct
Becuase it uses the singular form of verb 'can survive' to describe action, a singular pronoun 'it' (used for animals) was employed to refer to the lungfish. The modifiers are placed in their appropriate positions so that they clearly convey the intended meaning of the sentence.

Option D - incorrect
It has the same issue as option B. Because the lungfish can extract oxygen from the air, it helps it to burrow deep into the ground.

Option E - incorrect
This sentence has no main verb in the sentence. It only contain modifiers, a subject and lung fish.