(SC)The Dikes of the Netherlands

This topic has expert replies
Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts
Posts: 12
Joined: 05 Sep 2020

(SC)The Dikes of the Netherlands

by r3shabh » Sat Sep 05, 2020 8:34 am
The Dikes of the Netherlands were built for stopping sea water from flooding the cities and
they do.

(A) were built for stopping sea water from flooding the cities
(B) had been built for stopping sea water from flooding the cities
(C) has been built to stop sea water from flooding the cities
(D) were built to stop sea water from flooding the cities
(E) had been built to stop sea water from flooding the cities

Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts
Posts: 25
Joined: 01 Oct 2021

Re: (SC)The Dikes of the Netherlands

by rvgmat12 » Fri Oct 01, 2021 11:16 pm
• Split #1 - PAST PERFECT?

If two events happen in the past and one precedes the other, we use past perfect (had verbED) for the earlier event and simple past or a time marker for the later event. The simple past tense, a time marker, or some other fact that clearly marks off the later event must be present.

No simple past tense event or time marker exists in the non-underlined part.

Options B and E incorrectly use past perfect. Eliminate B and E.

• Split #2 - IDIOM X was built TO STOP Y

I am not sure how so many people knew this idiom. I did not.
I knew that "for stopping" sounded weird and that I would never have used it.
Yes, we do need an infinitive of purpose, i.e. to stop.
"Built for stopping" is incorrect.

Options A and B use built for stopping rather than built to stop. Eliminate A. (B is already gone)

• Split #3 - present perfect is wrong

Option C uses present perfect "has been built." Wrong verb tense.

Present perfect, passive construction: HAS/HAVE + been + past participle (verbED)

We use present perfect as "a bridge from the past to the present," to express
-- action that occurred at an indefinite time (They have lived in that house for 20 years.)
-- action that occurred in the past and continues into the future (They have become frustrated in the last few hours.)

Option C also has subject/verb error. Dikes . . . HAS been built. Wrong.
Wrong verb, but also wrong because Dikes are plural and HAS is singular.

The answer is D