A pharmaceutical company received $3 million in royalties on the first $20 million in sales of the generic equivalent of one of its products and then $9 million in royalties on the next $108 million in sales. By approximately what percent did the ratio of royalties to sales decrease from the first $20 million in sales to the next $108 million in sales?
(A) 8%
(B) 15%
(C) 45%
(D) 52%
(E) 56%
Answer: C
In the explanation, it says "the percent decrease in the royalties to sales ratios is 100 times the quotient of the difference in the ratios divided by the ratio of royalties to sales for the first $20 million in sales". What?? How did they get to this? Can anyone explain it a bit better?
Thank you in advance!
Ratios & Revenue (OG Quant Review #115)
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Initially $3m royalty from $20m sales, So $ 1m royal = $20/3 = $ 6.66
Next, $9m royalty from $108m sales, So $ 1m royal = $108/9 = $ 12
% deccrease = (12  6.66)/ 12 * 100 = 44.5% so option C fits the best.
Next, $9m royalty from $108m sales, So $ 1m royal = $108/9 = $ 12
% deccrease = (12  6.66)/ 12 * 100 = 44.5% so option C fits the best.
Hello, Please ignore the previous solution and consider this one.
Initially $3m royalty from $20m sales, So $ 1m sales = $3/20
Next, $9m royalty from $108m sales, So $ 1m sales = $9/108
% Decrease = Change/Original * 100
% Decrease = (3/20  9/108)/ (3/20) * 100 = approx 45 %
Initially $3m royalty from $20m sales, So $ 1m sales = $3/20
Next, $9m royalty from $108m sales, So $ 1m sales = $9/108
% Decrease = Change/Original * 100
% Decrease = (3/20  9/108)/ (3/20) * 100 = approx 45 %
Tushar14 wrote:Hello, Please ignore the previous solution and consider this one as we need to calculate the % decrease in sales.
Initially $3m royalty from $20m sales, So $ 1m sales = $3/20
Next, $9m royalty from $108m sales, So $ 1m sales = $9/108
% Decrease = Change/Original * 100
% Decrease = (3/20  9/108)/ (3/20) * 100 = approx 45 %
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Since the questions stem asks for an approximation, we can BALLPARK.bml1105 wrote:A pharmaceutical company received $3 million in royalties on the first $20 million in sales of the generic equivalent of one of its products and then $9 million in royalties on the next $108 million in sales. By approximately what percent did the ratio of royalties to sales decrease from the first $20 million in sales to the next $108 million in sales?
(A) 8%
(B) 15%
(C) 45%
(D) 52%
(E) 56%
Original ratio = 3/20 = 15/100 = 15%..
Decreased ratio = 9/108 â‰ˆ 9/100 = 9%.
Percent decrease from 15 to 9 = (15  9)/15 * 100 = 6/15 * 100 = 40%.
Only C is viable.
The correct answer is C.
If the answer choices are very close, the exact percent change can be calculated as follows.
Option 1: Denominator approach
Convert the ratios so that the denominators are the same.
Calculate the percent change in the numerators.
In the problem above:
Old ratio: 3/20 = 9/60.
New ratio: 9/108 = 1/12 = 5/60.
From 9 to 5, the percent change in the numerators = (95)/9 * 100 = 4/9 * 100 â‰ˆ 44.44.
Option 2: Numerator approach
Convert the ratios so that the numerators are the same.
Calculate the percent change in the denominators.
In the problem above:
Old ratio: 3/20 = 9/60.
New ratio = 9/108.
From 60 to 108, the percent change in the denominators = (10860)/60 * 100 = 48/108 * 100 = 4/9 * 100 â‰ˆ 44.44.
But we should always check the answer choices BEFORE we calculate.
Here, the answer choices are NOT very close and the question stem asks for an APPROXIMATION.
Thus, we can save time by estimating, as I did in in my first solution above.
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First $20 million: royalties/sales ratio = 3/20 = 36/240bml1105 wrote:A pharmaceutical company received $3 million in royalties on the first $20 million in sales of the generic equivalent of one of its products and then $9 million in royalties on the next $108 million in sales. By approximately what percent did the ratio of royalties to sales decrease from the first $20 million in sales to the next $108 million in sales?
(A) 8%
(B) 15%
(C) 45%
(D) 52%
(E) 56%
Next $108 million: royalties/sales ratio = 9/108 = 1/12 = 20/240
Noticed that I rewrote both with the SAME DENOMINATOR.
So, now all we need to is determine the percent change from 36 to 20.
To do so, we could use some more lengthy calculations [e.g., 100(3620)/36]
HOWEVER, notice that, if we start at 36, a 50% decrease would give us 18.
So going from 36 to 20, must be a decrease that's LESS THAN 50% (but also pretty close to 50%)
Only one answer choice works.
Answer: C
Cheers,
Brent
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Solution:bml1105 wrote:A pharmaceutical company received $3 million in royalties on the first $20 million in sales of the generic equivalent of one of its products and then $9 million in royalties on the next $108 million in sales. By approximately what percent did the ratio of royalties to sales decrease from the first $20 million in sales to the next $108 million in sales?
(A) 8%
(B) 15%
(C) 45%
(D) 52%
(E) 56%
Answer: C
In the explanation, it says "the percent decrease in the royalties to sales ratios is 100 times the quotient of the difference in the ratios divided by the ratio of royalties to sales for the first $20 million in sales". What?? How did they get to this? Can anyone explain it a bit better?
Thank you in advance!
This is a percent decrease problem. We will use the formula:
percent change = [(new  old)/old] x 100 to calculate the final answer.
We first set up the ratios of royalties to sales. The first ratio will be for the first $20 million in sales, and the second ratio will be for the next $108 million in sales. Because all of the sales are in millions, we do not have to express all the trailing zeroes in our ratios.
First $20 Million
royalties/sales = 3/20
Next $108 Million
royalties/sales = 9/108 = 1/12
We can plug 1/12 and 3/20 into our percent change formula:
[(new  old)/old] x 100
[(1/12  3/20)/(3/20)] x 100
Because the first term is a complex fraction, we can simplify it by multiplying each fraction within the complex fraction by the LCM of 12 and 20, which is 60:
1/12 x 60 = 5 and 3/20 x 60 = 9
Therefore, we have:
[(5  9)/9] x 100
(4/9) x 100
At this point we can stop and consider the answer choices. Since we know that 4/9 is just a bit less than Â½, we know that (4/9) x 100 is about a 45% decrease.
Answer:C
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nitially $3m royalty from $20m sales, So $ 1m sales = $3/20
Next, $9m royalty from $108m sales, So $ 1m sales = $9/108
% Decrease = Change/Original * 100
% Decrease = (3/20  9/108)/ (3/20) * 100 = approx 45 %
Next, $9m royalty from $108m sales, So $ 1m sales = $9/108
% Decrease = Change/Original * 100
% Decrease = (3/20  9/108)/ (3/20) * 100 = approx 45 %
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Solution:bml1105 wrote: ↑Sun Apr 20, 2014 7:19 pmA pharmaceutical company received $3 million in royalties on the first $20 million in sales of the generic equivalent of one of its products and then $9 million in royalties on the next $108 million in sales. By approximately what percent did the ratio of royalties to sales decrease from the first $20 million in sales to the next $108 million in sales?
(A) 8%
(B) 15%
(C) 45%
(D) 52%
(E) 56%
Answer: C
This is a percent decrease problem. We will use the formula: percent change = (new – old)/old x 100 to calculate the final answer.
We first set up the ratios of royalties to sales. The first ratio will be for the first 20 million in sales and the second ratio will be for the next 108 million in sales. Because all of the sales are in millions, we do not have to express all of the trailing zeros in our ratios.
First 20 Million
royalties/sales = 3/20
Next 108 Million
royalties/sales = 9/108 = 1/12
Because each ratio is not an easy number to use, we can simplify them by multiplying each by the LCM of the two denominators, which is 60. Keep in mind that we are able to do this only because our answer choices are expressed in percentages.
First 20 Million
royalties/sales = (3/20) x 60 = 9
Next 108 Million
royalties/sales = (1/12) x 60 = 5
We can plug 9 and 5 into our percent change formula:
(new – old)/old x 100
[(5 – 9)/9] x 100
4/9 x 100
At this point we can stop and consider the answer choices. Since we know that 4/9 is just a bit less than ½, we know that 4/9 x 100 is about a 45% decrease.
Answer: C
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Hi All,
We’re told that a pharmaceutical company received $3 million in royalties on the FIRST $20 million in sales and then $9 million in royalties on the NEXT $108 million in sales. We’re asked by what APPROXIMATE percentage did the ratio of royalties on the first $20 million DECREASE to the ratio of royalties on the next $108 million.
The question clearly refers to Percentage Change, so we’ll need to use the Percentage Change Formula to answer it.
Percent Change = (New – Old)/Old = Difference/Original
First though, we need to define the two ratios involved:
$3 million/$20 million = 3/20 = .15
$9 million/$108 million = 9/108 = 1/12 = .083333
Instead of directly placing those decimals into the Percentage Change Formula, I’m going to multiply them both by 100 (which will make the final calculation easier to look at…
Old = 15
New = 8.333
(New – Old)/Old = (8.3333 – 15)/15 = 6.6666/15
Since 6/15 would be a 40% decrease, we know that 6.6666/15 would be a bit more of a decrease (but not a 50% decrease, since that would be 7.5/15) …
Final Answer: C
GMAT Assassins aren’t born, they’re made,
Rich
We’re told that a pharmaceutical company received $3 million in royalties on the FIRST $20 million in sales and then $9 million in royalties on the NEXT $108 million in sales. We’re asked by what APPROXIMATE percentage did the ratio of royalties on the first $20 million DECREASE to the ratio of royalties on the next $108 million.
The question clearly refers to Percentage Change, so we’ll need to use the Percentage Change Formula to answer it.
Percent Change = (New – Old)/Old = Difference/Original
First though, we need to define the two ratios involved:
$3 million/$20 million = 3/20 = .15
$9 million/$108 million = 9/108 = 1/12 = .083333
Instead of directly placing those decimals into the Percentage Change Formula, I’m going to multiply them both by 100 (which will make the final calculation easier to look at…
Old = 15
New = 8.333
(New – Old)/Old = (8.3333 – 15)/15 = 6.6666/15
Since 6/15 would be a 40% decrease, we know that 6.6666/15 would be a bit more of a decrease (but not a 50% decrease, since that would be 7.5/15) …
Final Answer: C
GMAT Assassins aren’t born, they’re made,
Rich