OG VERBAL REVIEW 2018 - Inspired by the Helsinki Accords and

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Inspired by the Helsinki Accords and outraged by the harsh sentences meted out to a group of Czech rock musicians called the Plastic People of the Universe, Charter 77 was established by dissident writers, philosophers, and other professionals to be a human rights group.

(a) Charter 77 was established by dissident writers, philosophers, and other professionals to be

(b) Charter 77 had been established by dissident writers, philosophers, and other professionals as

(c) Charter 77 established by dissident writers, philosophers, and other professionals were

(d) dissidents writers, philosophers, and other professionals established Charter 77 as

(e) dissidents writers, philosophers, and other professionals had established Charter 77 to be

OA: D.

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by GMATGuruNY » Thu Aug 24, 2017 9:51 am
saswata4s wrote:Inspired by the Helsinki Accords and outraged by the harsh sentences meted out to a group of Czech rock musicians called the Plastic People of the Universe, Charter 77 was established by dissident writers, philosophers, and other professionals to be a human rights group.

(a) Charter 77 was established by dissident writers, philosophers, and other professionals to be

(b) Charter 77 had been established by dissident writers, philosophers, and other professionals as

(c) Charter 77 established by dissident writers, philosophers, and other professionals were

(d) dissidents writers, philosophers, and other professionals established Charter 77 as

(e) dissidents writers, philosophers, and other professionals had established Charter 77 to be
A: Outraged by the harsh sentences meted out to a group of Czech rock musicians, Charter 77 was established.
B: Outraged by the harsh sentences meted out to a group of Czech rock musicians, Charter 77 had been established.
Here, outraged incorrectly serves to modify Charter 77, incorrectly implying that the group Charter 77 was OUTRAGED when it was or had been ESTABLISHED.
This sequence is nonsensical.
Common sense tells us that the outrage happened FIRST.
Then -- AS A RESULT of the outrage -- the group Charter 77 was established.
Eliminate A and B.

On the GMAT, a collective noun (such as the name of a group) is considered SINGULAR.
C: Charter 77...were a human rights group.
Here, were (plural) does not agree with Charter 77 (singular).
Eliminate C.

In E, there is no justification for the usage of the past perfect (had been established).
Also, established to be is unidiomatic.
Correct: X was established as Y.
Eliminate E.

The correct answer is D.
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