OG Jacob Burkhardt's view that Renaissance

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Jacob Burckhardt's view that Renaissance European women "stood on a footing of perfect equality" with Renaissance men has been repeatedly cited by feminist scholars as a prelude to their presentation of rich historical evidence of women's inequality. In striking contrast to Burckhardt, Joan Kelly in her famous 1977 essay, "Did Women Have a Renaissance?" argued that the Renaissance was a period of economic and social decline for women relative both to Renaissance men and to medieval women. Recently, however, a significant trend among feminist scholars has entailed a rejection of both Kelly's dark vision of the Renaissance and Burckhardt's rosy one. Many recent works by these scholars stress the ways in which differences among Renaissance women-especially in terms of social status and religion-work to complicate the kinds of generalizations both Burckhardt and Kelly made on the basis of their observations about upper-class Italian women.

The trend is also evident, however, in works focusing on those middle- and upper-class European women whose ability to write gives them disproportionate representation in the historical record. Such women were, simply by virtue of their literacy, members of a tiny minority of the population, so it is risky to take their descriptions of their experiences as typical of "female experience" in any general sense. Tina Krontiris, for example, in her fascinating study of six Renaissance women writers, does tend at times to conflate "women" and"women writers," assuming that women's gender, irrespective of other social differences, including literacy, allows us to view women as a homogeneous social group and make that group an object of analysis. Nonetheless, Krontiris makes a significant contribution to the field and is representative of those authors who offer what might be called a cautiously optimistic assessment of Renaissance women's achievements, although she also stresses the social obstacles Renaissance women faced when they sought to raise their "oppositional voices." Krontiris is concerned to show women intentionally negotiating some power for themselves (at least in the realm of public discourse) against potentially constraining ideologies, but in her sober and thoughtful concluding remarks, she suggests that such verbal opposition to cultural stereotypes was highly circumscribed; women seldom attacked the basic assumptions in the ideologies that oppressed them.

534) The author of the passage discusses Krontiris primarily to provide an example of a writer who
A. is highly critical of the writings of certain Renaissance women
B. supports Kelly's view of women's status during the Renaissance
C. has misinterpreted the works of certain Renaissance women
D. has rejected the views of both Burckhardt and Kelly
E. has studied Renaissance women in a wide variety of social and religious contexts

535) According to the passage, Krontiris's work differs from that of the scholars mentioned in highlight text in which of the following ways?
A. Krontiris's work stresses the achievements of Renaissance women rather than the obstacles to their success.
B. Krontiris's work is based on a reinterpretation of the work of earlier scholars.
C. Krontiris's views are at odds with those of both Kelly and Burkhardt.
D. Krontiris's work focuses on the place of women in Renaissance society.
E. Krontiris's views are based exclusively on the study of a privileged group of women.

536) According to the passage, feminist scholars cite Burckhardt's view of Renaissance women primarily for which of the following reasons?
A. Burckhardt's view forms the basis for most arguments refuting Kelly's point of view.
B. Burckhardt's view has been discredited by Kelly.
C. Burckhardt's view is one that many feminist scholars wish to refute.
D. Burckhardt's work provides rich historical evidence of inequality between Renaissance women and men.
E. Burckhardt's work includes historical research supporting the arguments of the feminist scholars.

537) It can be inferred that both Burckhardt and Kelly have been criticized by the scholars mentioned in highlight text for which of the following?
A. Assuming that women writers of the Renaissance are representative of Renaissance women in general
B. Drawing conclusions that are based on the study of an atypical group of women
C. Failing to describe clearly the relationship between social status and literacy among Renaissance women
D. Failing to acknowledge the role played by Renaissance women in opposing cultural stereotypes
E. Failing to acknowledge the ways in which social status affected the creative activities of Renaissance women

538) The author of the passage suggests that Krontiris incorrectly assumes that
A. social differences among Renaissance women are less important than the fact that they were women
B. literacy among Renaissance women was more prevalent than most scholars today acknowledge
C. during the Renaissance, women were able to successfully oppose cultural stereotypes relating to gender
D. Renaissance women did not face many difficult social obstacles relating to their gender
E. in order to attain power, Renaissance women attacked basic assumptions in the ideologies that oppressed them

539) The last sentence in the passage serves primarily to
A. suggest that Krontiris's work is not representative of recent trends among feminist scholars
B. undermine the argument that literate women of the Renaissance sought to oppose social constraints imposed on them
C. show a way in which Krontiris's work illustrates a "cautiously optimistic"assessment of Renaissance women's achievements
D. summarize Krontiris's view of the effect of literacy on the lives of upper- and middle-class Renaissance women
E. illustrate the way in which Krontiris's study differs from the studies done by Burckhardt and Kelly

540) The author of the passage implies that the women studied by Krontiris are unusual in which of the following ways?
A. They faced obstacles less formidable than those faced by other Renaissance women.
B. They have been seen by historians as more interesting than other Renaissance women.
C. They were more concerned about recording history accurately than were other Renaissance women.
D. Their perceptions are more likely to be accessible to historians than are those of most other Renaissance women.
E. Their concerns are likely to be of greater interest to feminist scholars than are the ideas of most other Renaissance women.

Q534: D
Q535: E
Q536: C
Q537: B
Q538: A
Q539: C
Q540: D

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by parry » Thu Mar 15, 2018 12:55 am
Could someone explain how Jacob Burckhardt's view that Renaissance European women "stood on a footing of perfect equality" with Renaissance men is cited by feminist scholars to show rich historical evidence of women's inequality and wish to refute the view. And hence the answer C in question 536?

I am having hard time understanding how equality is cited by someone to show inequality.

Thanks in advance.

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Renaissance

by GMATGuruNY » Wed Mar 28, 2018 4:03 am
parry wrote:
536) According to the passage, feminist scholars cite Burckhardt's view of Renaissance women primarily for which of the following reasons?

A. Burckhardt's view forms the basis for most arguments refuting Kelly's point of view.
B. Burckhardt's view has been discredited by Kelly.
C. Burckhardt's view is one that many feminist scholars wish to refute.
D. Burckhardt's work provides rich historical evidence of inequality between Renaissance women and men.
E. Burckhardt's work includes historical research supporting the arguments of the feminist scholars.
Could someone explain how Jacob Burckhardt's view that Renaissance European women "stood on a footing of perfect equality" with Renaissance men is cited by feminist scholars to show rich historical evidence of women's inequality and wish to refute the view. And hence the answer C in question 536?

I am having hard time understanding how equality is cited by someone to show inequality.

Thanks in advance.
Jacob Burckhardt's view that Renaissance European women "stood on a footing of perfect equality" with Renaissance men has been repeatedly cited by feminist scholars as a prelude to their presentation of rich historical evidence of women's inequality.

A prelude is an INTRODUCTION.
Conveyed meaning:
Many feminist scholars introduce evidence of women's inequality by citing Jacob Burckhardt's view that Renaissance European women "stood on a footing of perfect equality."
Why is Burckhardt cited?
To show that he was WRONG:

In striking contrast to Burckhardt, Joan Kelly in her famous 1977 essay, "Did Women Have a Renaissance?" argued that the Renaissance was a period of economic and social decline for women relative both to Renaissance men and to medieval women.

Here, Joan Kelly argues that the Renaissance was period of DECLINE for women relative to Renaissance men -- an argument IN STRIKING CONTRAST to Burckhardt's contention that women "stood on a footing of perfect equality."

Thus, the correct answer is C:
Burckhardt's view is one that many feminist scholars wish to refute.
In other words, feminist scholars cite Burckhardt to show that he was WRONG.
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by parry » Mon Apr 09, 2018 1:55 am
This is very helpful.
You rock!

Thanks.
GMATGuruNY wrote:
parry wrote:
536) According to the passage, feminist scholars cite Burckhardt's view of Renaissance women primarily for which of the following reasons?

A. Burckhardt's view forms the basis for most arguments refuting Kelly's point of view.
B. Burckhardt's view has been discredited by Kelly.
C. Burckhardt's view is one that many feminist scholars wish to refute.
D. Burckhardt's work provides rich historical evidence of inequality between Renaissance women and men.
E. Burckhardt's work includes historical research supporting the arguments of the feminist scholars.
Could someone explain how Jacob Burckhardt's view that Renaissance European women "stood on a footing of perfect equality" with Renaissance men is cited by feminist scholars to show rich historical evidence of women's inequality and wish to refute the view. And hence the answer C in question 536?

I am having hard time understanding how equality is cited by someone to show inequality.

Thanks in advance.
Jacob Burckhardt's view that Renaissance European women "stood on a footing of perfect equality" with Renaissance men has been repeatedly cited by feminist scholars as a prelude to their presentation of rich historical evidence of women's inequality.

A prelude is an INTRODUCTION.
Conveyed meaning:
Many feminist scholars introduce evidence of women's inequality by citing Jacob Burckhardt's view that Renaissance European women "stood on a footing of perfect equality."
Why is Burckhardt cited?
To show that he was WRONG:

In striking contrast to Burckhardt, Joan Kelly in her famous 1977 essay, "Did Women Have a Renaissance?" argued that the Renaissance was a period of economic and social decline for women relative both to Renaissance men and to medieval women.

Here, Joan Kelly argues that the Renaissance was period of DECLINE for women relative to Renaissance men -- an argument IN STRIKING CONTRAST to Burckhardt's contention that women "stood on a footing of perfect equality."

Thus, the correct answer is C:
Burckhardt's view is one that many feminist scholars wish to refute.
In other words, feminist scholars cite Burckhardt to show that he was WRONG.