Long Passage, 700 level: Intelligence

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Long Passage, 700 level: Intelligence

by chillbrorelax » Sun Aug 23, 2020 9:16 pm
Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single entity that could be measured by a simple IQ test. In 1983, however, Dr. Howard Gardner, a professor of education at Harvard University, introduced his theory of multiple intelligences. Today, there are two major schools of thought on intelligence. Despite extensive and ongoing research, scientists have been unable to prove definitively one theory over the other.

The single intelligence model is based on the idea of one general intelligence, known as positive manifold or simply g. Perhaps the most convincing evidence in support of this theory is the fact that individuals who perform well on tests of one cognitive ability also perform well on tests of a second cognitive ability. For example, those who do well on verbal tests also do well on mathematics tests, and vice versa. Another argument in support of the general intelligence theory is the strong positive correlation between intelligent quotient, or IQ, as measured by psychometric tests, and reaction time. Individuals with faster reaction times or neural processing speeds have higher IQs, suggesting that neural processing speed is equivalent to the one general intelligence.

The theory of multiple intelligences asserts that there is more than one type of intelligence. Proponents of this model differ on the number of intelligences. Gardner, for example, originally proposed seven, but has since added an eighth. His categories are linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Dr. Robert Sternberg, a professor of psychology and education at Yale University, proposes a triarchic theory of intelligence, which divides intelligence into three categories: analytical, creative, and practical. Gardner’s theory is supported primarily by biological evidence. By studying individuals with paralysis, speech impairment, or other disabilities, Gardner has been able to identify specific parts of the brain associated with different physical and cognitive skills. Sternberg’s model relies on observations of real-life situations. He notes that in Brazil, for example, street children can do the math they need to know to survive, thereby demonstrating practical intelligence, but cannot pass a school math class, which requires analytical intelligence.

1. The author mentions the correlation between IQ and reaction time in order to

(A) provide justification for Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences

(B) explain the triarchic model of intelligence proposed by Robert Sternberg

(C) introduce the idea of positive manifold

(D) point out one argument in support of general intelligence

(E) prove that the single intelligence model is superior to the theory of multiple intelligences

OA: D

2. It can be inferred from the passage that

(A) the theory of multiple intelligences is more prominent than the single intelligence model

(B) the traditional view of intelligence has been challenged in recent years

(C) there is no biological evidence for Sternberg’s model

(D) street children in Brazil would not do well on standard IQ tests

(E) the theory of multiple intelligences has been adopted by some schoolteachers

OA: B

3. According to the passage, the term “positive manifold” can be most closely identified with which of the following?

(A) The correlation between IQ and reaction time

(B) The observation that individuals with speech impairment are able to demonstrate other forms of intelligence

(C) The relationship between IQ and performance on standardized tests

(D) The three intelligences proposed by Dr. Robert Sternberg

(E) Neural processing speed

OA: E

4. The author of this passage would most likely agree with which of the following?

(A) The theory of multiple intelligences is relatively new and untested.

(B) Within the next decade, discoveries about the human brain will resolve the debate about intelligence.

(C) Dr. Sternberg’s theory would be strengthened by the discovery of biological evidence for his conclusions.

(D) The theory of multiple intelligences is undermined by disagreements among its proponents as to the number of intelligences.

(E) There is stronger biological evidence in favor of the single-intelligence model than of the theory of multiple intelligences.

OA: C

Hi guys, this is a 700 level RC by MGMAT. I want you help to understand how you approach to solve these questions. Thanks.

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Kindly explain the number 4 question

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Re: Long Passage, 700 level: Intelligence

by Rossyjo » Tue May 11, 2021 5:25 am
Hi, brief explanation is below
1) D. This is a specific question pertaining to the correlation between IQ and reaction time. Recall that for specific questions, we should be able to find one or two sentences to defend the correct answer choice.
2)B. Your answer to an inference question must be supported by evidence from the passage. Remember that Reading Comprehension inferences rarely go far beyond what is stated in the passage, so you should infer as little as possible.
3)E. The author uses the term “positive manifold” in the first sentence of the second paragraph. From this sentence, we can deduce that “positive manifold” is associated, or even synonymous with, the idea of one general intelligence.
4)C. Although this question appears to be a specific question, it is really a general question concerned with the tone of the passage. A close reading reveals that the general tone is objective and neutral. Therefore, you should eliminate answer choices that are too extreme or that favor one theory over the other.