Carotenoids, a family of natural pigments, form
an important part of the colorful signals used by
many animals. Animals acquire carotenoids either
directly (from the plants and algae that produce
(5)"‚them) or indirectly (by eating insects) and store them
in a variety of tissues. Studies of several animal
species have shown that when choosing mates,
females prefer males with brighter carotenoid-based
coloration. Owens and Olson hypothesize that the
(10)"‚presence of carotenoids, as signaled by coloration,
would be meaningful in the context of mate selection
if carotenoids were either rare or required for
health. The conventional view is that carotenoids
are meaningful because they are rare: healthier
(15)"‚males can forage for more of the pigments than
can their inferior counterparts. Although this may be
true, there is growing evidence that carotenoids are
meaningful also because they are required: they are
used by the immune system and for detoxification
(20)"‚processes that are important for maintaining health.
It may be that males can use scarce carotenoids
either for immune defense and detoxification or for
attracting females. Males that are more susceptible
to disease and parasites will have to use their
(25)"‚carotenoids to boost their immune systems, whereas
males that are genetically resistant will use fewer
carotenoids for fighting disease and will advertise
this by using the pigments for flashy display instead.
Q443) According to the "conventional view" referred to in line 13 of the passage, brighter carotenoid-based coloration in certain species suggests that an individual
A) lives in a habitat rich in carotenoid-bearing plants and insects
B) has efficient detoxification processes
C) has a superior immune system
D) possesses superior foraging capacity
E) is currently capable of reproducing
Q444) The idea that carotenoid-based coloration is significant partly because carotenoids are required for health suggests that a lack of bright coloration in a male is most likely to indicate which of the following?
A) Inefficient detoxification processes
B) Immunity to parasite infestation
C) Low genetic resistance to disease
D) Lack of interest in mating
E) Lack of carotenoid-storing tissues
Q445) The passage suggests that relatively bright carotenoid based coloration is a signal of which of the following characteristics in males of certain animal species?
A) Readiness for mating behavior
B) Ability to fight
C) Particular feeding preferences
D) Recovery from parasite infestation
E) Fitness as a mate
Q446) The passage implies which of the following about the insects from which animals acquire carotenoids?
A) They do not produce carotenoids themselves.
B) They use carotenoids primarily for coloration.
C) They maintain constant levels of carotenoids in their tissues.
D) They are unable to use carotenoids to boost their immune system.
E) They are available in greater abundance than are carotenoid-bearing plants.
Q447) Information in the passage suggests that which of the following is true of carotenoids that a male animal uses for detoxification processes?
A) They were not acquired directly from plants and algae.
B) They cannot be replenished through foraging.
C) They cannot be used simultaneously to brighten coloration.
D) They do not affect the animal's susceptibility to parasites.
E) They increase the chances that the animal will be selected as a mate.