Frequency-dependent foraging refers to the tendency of an individual to selectively forage on a certain species based on the relative frequency of that foraged species in the wild. Generally, the more populous a species, the more likely that species is to be selected as the primary foraged species. Surprisingly, several unrelated university sponsored laboratory experiments on bumblebees, tested with an identical foraged species, yielded dramatically different results. In some experiments, the bumblebees thrived, while in others they perished. Given that each of the experiments had comparable funding, the varying results must have been attributable to the quality of the way the experiments were maintained by the researchers conducting them.
Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the conclusion drawn above?
Ⓐ In the wild, frequency-dependent foraging among bumblebees typically occurs when any one of a small number of foraged species is present.
Ⓑ The same basic experiment design guidelines were used for each of the experiments.
Ⓒ The number of academic calendar years of experience among those who conducted the laboratory experiments varied from four years to five years.
Ⓓ The species of bumblebee used in the laboratory experiments varied from experiment to experiment.
Ⓔ A team at the same university that conducted one of the frequency-dependent foraging experiments has been accused of exaggerating the findings of an experiment conducted just two years prior.
Frequency-dependent foraging refers to the tendency of an individual to selectively forage on a certain species based on
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