Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to

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Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, that make their company seem large and more firmly established than they may actually be.

A) that make their company seem large
B) to make their companies seem larger
C) thus making their companies seem larger
D) so that the companies seem larger
E) of making their company seem large

OA: B
I have two question -
1. How in a same sentence can "they" and "their" refer to two different entities.
2. Please comment on what you think about the usage of "like" in the non-underlined portion of the sentence.so I wanted to be sure even if it is an aberration by GMAC. We never know when they start using 'such as' for 'like'. So, I wanted to be clear on the matter.

Source: Verbal 2017

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by richachampion » Mon Aug 01, 2016 1:11 am

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Now, let's come to what OG has to say =

Clauses beginning so that can express purpose, but do not fit with "ways" in the manner required here: to or of is needed after ways. It very clearly notes that either "to" OR "of" fits after "resourceful ways" in the sentence.

If you ask me why, I will say that I too don't know. But, I am looking out for a reason for this and will update here.

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by fiza gupta » Tue Nov 15, 2016 4:55 am

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experts need your explanation for the doubts described above.
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by [email protected] » Tue Nov 15, 2016 6:58 am

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richachampion wrote:I have two question -
1. How in a same sentence can "they" and "their" refer to two different entities.
their appears before companies and modifies companies, and meaning clearly dictates that their refers to entrepreneurs. So their clearly does not refer to companies.

they follows and is closest to companies, and companies is between entrepreneurs and they. Meanwhile, meaning dictates that they refers to companies.

So we have two pronouns that clearly refer to two different antecedents. This construction is fine.
2. Please comment on what you think about the usage of "like" in the non-underlined portion of the sentence.so I wanted to be sure even if it is an aberration by GMAC. We never know when they start using 'such as' for 'like'. So, I wanted to be clear on the matter.
What makes the key difference between when using such as makes more sense and when using like makes more sense is whether what follows is something that something else is like.

Such As: People wanting sustainable power sources have many choices, such as solar panels, windmills and geothermal heat pumps.

The members of the list are all different from each other, and the point is not that people are choosing things like solar panels, like windmills or like geothermal heat pumps. Those are just examples of things people choose.

Like: To move this couch, we could use a wheeled device like a hand truck.

The point is that in order to move the couch they could a wheeled device that is like a hand truck. Ideally or in the strictest interpretation, device like a hand truck conveys that the device in question is not actually a hand truck but rather something that is like a hand truck, but in many cases a construction like device like a hand truck conveys a meaning such that whatever follows like, in this case hand truck, is one of the possibilities.

Regarding what the sentence above says, resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, some might debate that like makes sense there, in that the ways are similar to renting temporary office space or using answering services. At the same time, I think such as would make more sense in that context, as what follows is simply a list of rather dissimilar examples, and if such as versus like in this context constituted a GMAT SC decision point, because like does not clearly make sense, choosing such as would be the way to go.

Perhaps the truth is that the creators of GMAT SC question sometimes pay more careful attention to what is in the underlined portion than what is in the non underlined portion.

Here's an example of a sentence in which in the non underlined portion they violated their own due to rule, making a clear error.

Data gathered by weather satellites has been analyzed by scientists, reporting that the Earth's northern latitudes have become about ten percent greener since 1980, due to more vigorous plant growth associated with warmer temperatures and higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Now, let's come to what OG has to say =

Clauses beginning so that can express purpose, but do not fit with "ways" in the manner required here: to or of is needed after ways. It very clearly notes that either "to" OR "of" fits after "resourceful ways" in the sentence.

If you ask me why, I will say that I too don't know.
Consider the following.

We are looking for ways to make our company seem larger.

We are looking for ways of making our company seem larger.

We are looking for ways so that our company seems larger.


In the first two examples, the ways are clearly connected to making the company seem larger.

ways to make

ways of making


In the third example, ways is not clearly connected to making the company seem larger. Rather, so connects We are looking to making the company seem larger. ways could be left out of the sentence.

We are looking so that our company seems larger.
Last edited by [email protected] on Tue Nov 15, 2016 10:50 am, edited 2 times in total.
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by fiza gupta » Tue Nov 15, 2016 10:33 am

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Thanku Sir, for the great explanation
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by gocoder » Mon Aug 28, 2017 4:18 am

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Could someone explain what is wrong in C ?

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by Ali Tariq » Wed Aug 30, 2017 11:01 pm

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gocoder wrote:Could someone explain what is wrong in C ?
C is illogical irrespective of whichever way you parse it or whichever way you try to interpret it.

GMAT SC tests two types of errors:
1) grammatical errors.
2) logical errors.

C has no grammatical error; It, however, has a logical error( again irrespective of whichever way you parse it).

Please note that logic or meaning is always the function of context. If you lose sight of context, it is certain that you will never be able to eliminate with confidence the answer choice that contains a logical error.

B) new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways to make their companies seem larger than they may actually be.
C) new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, thus making their companies seem larger than they may actually be.

In B, infinitive( to make) expresses purpose.
In C, comma verbing( ,thus making) expresses result or outcome.

B says nothing about the result or outcome.
C says nothing about the purpose or intention; i.e, C gets rid, altogether, of the fact that the act of finding resourceful ways is intended towards some end, and instead simply states that end.

Furthur, note the inability of comma verbing(, thus making) to modify appropriately the preceding clause (new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways).
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by ceilidh.erickson » Mon Sep 25, 2017 9:39 am

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richachampion wrote: 2. Please comment on what you think about the usage of "like" in the non-underlined portion of the sentence.so I wanted to be sure even if it is an aberration by GMAC. We never know when they start using 'such as' for 'like'. So, I wanted to be clear on the matter.

Source: Verbal 2017
The only explanation: the GMAT appears to have changed its mind on the "like" v. "such as" rule!

Language and grammar shift over time, and the GMAT (eventually) adapts to reflect this. The GMAT used to test the "like" v. "such as" issue with some regularity; you'll find examples in older versions of OGs and GMATPrep tests 1&2 (both over 10 yrs old at this point). Because "like" is very commonly used to introduce lists in colloquial spoken English, though, the GMAT seems to have adapted its policy on this rule. We can infer that it's unlikely that you'll see this issue on the real test in future (though you may still see it in practice questions).
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by [email protected] » Thu Feb 28, 2019 2:16 pm

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Hello Everyone!

Let's take a closer look at this question to figure out how to get to the correct answer quickly! First, here is the original question with any major differences between each option highlighted in orange:

Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, that make their company seem large and more firmly established than they may actually be.

(A) that make their company seem large
(B) to make their companies seem larger
(C) thus making their companies seem larger
(D) so that the companies seem larger
(E) of making their company seem large

After a quick glance over each option, a few major differences jump out:

1. How they begin: that / to / thus / so that / of
2. company vs. companies
3. large vs. larger


The best way to tackle a GMAT question is to pick out the issues that could potentially eliminate the most answers. For this question, #2 and #3 on our list will knock out 2-3 options easily, so let's start there.

If we start with #3 on our list (large vs. larger), we will eliminate 2-3 answers right away.

After reading through the entire sentence, it's clear that the advice given is meant to make a company seem both larger than it truly is and more firmly established than it truly is. When using the comparative for one item (more firmly established), we must use it for both items! It doesn't make sense to say the advice makes your company large than it truly is and more firmly established than it truly is, does it? So, let's see how our options stack up:

(A) that make their company seem large
(B) to make their companies seem larger
(C) thus making their companies seem larger
(D) so that the companies seem larger
(E) of making their company seem large

We can eliminate options A and E right away because they don't use the correct comparative term "larger" to show how the company looks to how it really is.

If we look at #2 on our list, we would also eliminate options A and E. Since we're talking about the plural "entrepreneurs," we're also talking about their plural "companies" they're starting. It wouldn't make sense to say all entrepreneurs are involved in starting the same company, right?

Now we're left with #1 on our list: how to begin the phrase (to / thus / so that). If we look closely at the original sentence, there are some non-essential phrases that we can eliminate (in this case, we'll highlight them in lavender) to better help us figure out which option is best:

Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services,that make their company seem large and more firmly established than they may actually be.

Whichever option we choose MUST make sense with and without these non-essential phrases added in! I've added in the rest of the sentence for each one, so we can see which option works the best:

(B) new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways to make their companies seem larger

This option is CORRECT because the word "to" is used correctly here to directly show purpose. It's clear that the entrepreneurs' actions are done with the purpose of making their companies look good.

(C) new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, thus making their companies seem larger

This option is INCORRECT because it changes the logical meaning of the sentence. "Thus" is meant to show the results of an action, not the purpose of an action. We don't know for sure if these resourceful ways will actually work or not. However, we know that entrepreneurs should do these things with the purpose of trying to make their companies look better, so using "to" is much clearer.

(D) new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways so that the companies seem larger

This option is also INCORRECT because the phrase "so that" doesn't work here. "So that" is meant to show that one person does an action so that another person can do/no do something as a result. Since a company is not a person, it doesn't make sense to use it here. Saying "to" is much clearer and shows a direct purpose.


There you have it - option B is the correct one! It uses the correct comparative "larger," agrees in number (entrepreneurs/they/companies), and uses the best conjunction to show purpose (to).


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by Mo2men » Thu Oct 24, 2019 4:15 pm

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richachampion wrote:Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, that make their company seem large and more firmly established than they may actually be.

A) that make their company seem large
B) to make their companies seem larger
C) thus making their companies seem larger
D) so that the companies seem larger
E) of making their company seem large

OA: B
Dear GMATGuru,

I recall that you said that ' different pronouns must have same referent'. However, the OA, the referents for 'their' and 'they' are different. How come?
Thanks

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pronouns

by GMATGuruNY » Fri Oct 25, 2019 5:16 am

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Mo2men wrote:Dear GMATGuru,

I recall that you said that ' different pronouns must have same referent'. However, the OA, the referents for 'their' and 'they' are different. How come?
Thanks
A general rule:
Within a SINGLE CLAUSE, forms of the same pronoun (they, them, their) should have the same referent.

OA: New entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways to make their companies seem larger and more firmly established than they may actually be.
Here, their (in the red clause) refers to entrepeneurs, while they (in the blue clause) refers to companies.
Since the two pronouns are contained within different clauses, the rule above does not apply.
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