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xwAcw&xAchhhhMath Review
Number System
Dividend = Divisor * Quotient + Remainder
Even + Even = Even
Odd + Odd = even
Even + Odd = odd
LCM & HCF
The common factors in the two numbers are HCF.
The common factors in the two numbers + the remainders
Example: 12 80 50
12 = 2 2 3
80 = 2 5 2 2 2
50 = 2 5 5
HCF = 2
LCM = 2 * 5 * 5 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 3
LCM * HCF = Product of 2 numbers.
1 + 2 + 3 ..n = n * n+1 / 2
Sum of squares of 1st n natural numbers = n (n+1)(2n+1) / 6
Sum of cubes of 1st n natural numbers = [n (n+1)/2]^2
Squares and Cubes
PRIVATENumber ( x )Square ( x 2 )Cube ( x 3 )111248392741664525125636216749864981101001112112144131691419615225162561728918324193612144122484235292457625625
Fractions and Percentage:
PRIVATEFractionDecimalPercentagePRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT=1/2"INCLUDEPICTURE \d "GMAT  Fractions  Page 2_files/1d2.gif"1 / 20.5501 / 30.3333 1/32 / 30.6666 2/31 / 40.25253 / 40.75751 / 50.2202 / 50.4403 / 50.6604 / 50.8801 / 60.16616PRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT=2/3"INCLUDEPICTURE \d "GMAT  Fractions  Page 2_files/2d3.gif" 2/35 / 60.83383PRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT=1/3"INCLUDEPICTURE \d "GMAT  Fractions  Page 2_files/1d3.gif" 2 / 31 / 80.12512 1 / 23 / 80.37537 1 / 25 / 80.62562 1 / 27 / 80.87587 1 / 21 / 90.111112 / 90.222221 / 100.1101 / 200.0551 / 1000.011
Variation:
Direct variation:
Whenever 2 quantities vary directory we can find the missing term by setting up a proportion
Example: If a truck can carry m pound of coal how many trucks are needed to carry p pounds of coals.
1/m = x/p
x = p / m
Inverse variation:
Whenever 2 quantities vary inversely we can find the missing term by using multiplication. Multiply the first quantity by the second and set the products equal.
Example: If a case of cat food can feed 5 cats for 4 days. How long would it feed 8 cats?
Since it is a case of Inverse variation more cats less days.
5 * 4 = x * 8
Percentage and discount:
'At a football game 50% of the seats are sold to clubmembers who pay $11 each and 10% are sold to children who pay $5 each. All the remaining tickets are sold to nonmembers at $15 each. What proportion of the total gate receipts for the game is contributed by nonmembers?'
PRIVATE% tickets soldprice% total incomeclubmembers50%$11children10%$5nonmembers$15?
Where '?' represents what we need to find to answer the question.
PRIVATE% tickets soldprice% total incomeincomeclubmembers50%$11$550children10%$5$50nonmembers40%$15? = 50%$600total100%100%$1,200
Ans is 50%
Read from Arcos from page: 484 to 494
Average:
Mean Median and Mode.
Median:
Step1: Arrange the numbers in ascending or descending.
Step2: Find the number of terms.
Step3:
n is even then median = Av of ( n/2 , (n+1)/2 ) term
n is odd then median = (n+1)/2 ) term
Mode:
Value of the term with MAX frequency
Arithmetic Mean:
M = Sum of observation / number of observations.
When frequency is given
M = Sigma fx / Sigma f
How to find a weighted average?
The girls average score is 30 while boys average score is 24. If there are twice as many boys as girls then what is the overall average?
A1 = 30
A2 = 24
M = 30 * 1 + 24 * 2 / 1 + 2
How to find the new average when a number is added or deleted?
Ms average score after four test is 80. If ge scores 100 in the 5th test then what is his new average?
80 * 4 + 100 / 5
Average speed = Total distance / Total Time
When equal distances are covered in different speed then we take the harmonic mean
Av Speed = 2ab / a + b
Different distances in same time we take AM
Av Speed is = a + b / 2
Inequality:
They are just solved as equations are solved however when multiplying or dividing by a negative number, then the order of inequality if reversed.
If x < y Then x + a < y + b if a < b
If x < y Then x + a < y + a
If x = y then x a > y b where a < b
Transitive Property. If x < y and y < z then x < z
If x < y and w < z then x + w < y + z
Word Problems
Motion in same direction (Over taking)
Is this type of problem the key point is at the moment when one person overtakes the other they have traveled the same distance.
Motion in opposite direction (Over taking)
Twoppl start at same time in different direction, key point is that total distance traveled is the sum of individual distance traveled.
Round Trip:
Key point is the distance going and coming back is same.
Circular motion:
Arc Length = (q / 360) 2 tt r
To solve any motion problem it is helpful to organize the data in a box with columns for rate, time and distance Use a separate row for each moving object.
Gloria leaves home for school, riding her bicycle at the rate of 12mph. 20 min later after she leaves her mother sees Glorias eng paper on her bed and leaves to bring it to her. If her mother drives at 36mph. how far must she drives before she reaches Gloria.
Rate * Time = Distance
Gloria 12 x 12x
Mother 36 x1/3 36*(x1/3)
12x = 36*(x1/3)
Work Problem:
WORK = Rate * Time.
Work = 1
1 = R * T R = 1 / T
Jon can wax his car in 3 hours. Jim can do the same job in 5 hours. How long will it take if they work together?
John Time = t1 = 3
Jim Time = t2 = 5
Together time = T
Formula: (1 / t1) + (1 / t2) = 1 / T
1/3 + 1/5 = 1/T
T = 15/8
Derivation:
Work of John + Work of Jim = Total Work
Work = rate * Time
R of jon = 1/3
R of jim = 1/5
Applying the formula
T/3 + T/5 = T*R where R is combined Rate.
Mixture Problem:
Key point is that the combined total of the concentrations in parts must be same as the whole mixture.
How many ounces of a solution i.e. 30% salt must be added to a 50ounce solution i.e. 10% salt so that the resulting sol is 20% salt.
Amount * % salt = Total
Original 50 10 500
Added x 30 30x
Mixture x+50 20 (x+50)20
500 + 30x = (x+50)20
500 + 30x = 20x + 1000
10x = 500
x = 50.
See Arco Page 521.
Interest Problem
Simple Interest: SI = PRT / 100, A = P + SI
A student invests 4000, part at 6% and part at 7%. The income from these investments in 1 year is 250. Find the amount invested at 7%.
250 = I1 + I2
Let x be the amount invested for 7%.
250 = (4000x)*6 / 100 + x*7/100
x = 1000.
A total of 1200$ is deposited in 2 semi annual accounts for one year. Part at 5% and remainder at 10%. If 72$ was earned as interest How much was deposited at 5%?
72 = x * 5 * 0.5 / 100 + (1200x) * 10 * 0.5 / 100
Coin Problems:
In solving coin problems it is best to change the value of all monies involved to cents before writing an equation.
1 Nickel = 5 cents
1 dime = 10 cents
1 quarter = 25 cents
1 half = 50 cents
1 dollar = 100 cents
Laura has 20 coins consisting of quarters and dimes. If she has a total of $3.05, how many dimes does she have?
3
7
10
13
16
Let D stand for the number of dimes, and let Q stand for the number of quarters. Since the total number of coins in 20, we get D + Q = 20, or Q = 20  D. Now, each dime is worth 10 cents, so the value of the dimes is 10D. Similarly, the value of the quarters is 25Q = 25(20  D). Summarizing this information in a table yields
PRIVATEDimesQuartersTotalNumberD20  D20Value10D25(20  D)305
Notice that the total value entry in the table was converted from $3.05 to 305 cents. Adding up the value of the dimes and the quarters yields the following equation:
10D + 25(20  D) = 30510D + 500  25D = 30515D = 195D = 13
Hence, there are 13 dimes, and the answer is (D).
Age Problems
Typically, in these problems, we start by letting x be a person's current age and then the person's age a years ago will be x  a and the person's age a years in future will be x + a. An example will illustrate.
Example:
John is 20 years older than Steve. In 10 years, Steve's age will be half that of John's. What is Steve's age?
2
8
10
20
25
Steve's age is the most unknown quantity. So we let x = Steve's age and then x + 20 is John's age. Ten years from now, Steve and John's ages will be x + 10 and x + 30, respectively. Summarizing this information in a table yields
PRIVATEAge nowAge in 10 yearsSteveXx + 10Johnx + 20x + 30
Since "in 10 years, Steve's age will be half that of John's," we get
(x + 30)/2 = x + 10x + 30 = 2(x + 10)x + 30 = 2x + 20x = 10
Hence, Steve is 10 years old, and the answer is (C).
Problems involving variables:
If there are variables in the question substitute them with numbers and try to solve.
At a certain printing plant each of m machines print 6 newspapers in every s seconds. If all machines work together and independently without interruption
How many minutes will it take to print 1800 newspapers?
180 s / m
50 s / m
50ms
ms / 50
300 m / s
Solution:
Let m = 2 and s = 1
Since each of m machines prints 6 newspapers in s seconds
So 2 machines prints 2*6 newspapers in 1 second
That is 12*60 newspapers in one minute.
720  1 minute
18000 ?
18000 / 720
= 25
Substitute m = 2 and s = 1 in all the choice and find the answer.
OR
Machine Time News Paper
1 s sec 6
m s sec 6m
m s / 60 min 6m
m X 18000
X = (18000 * s / 60) / 6m
X = 50 s / m
Probability:
Probability = Number of favorable outcomes / Total number of outcomes
If an event occurs in A ways and fails in B ways then
Probability of occurring an event
P(A) = A / A + B
P(B) failing of event = B / A + B or 1  P(A)
Permutation and Combination:
Permutation nPr = n! / (nr)!
Combination nCr = n! / (r!) (nr)!
If one operation can be performed in M ways and the second operation can be performed in N then the number of ways of performing the two operations is
M * N
NOTE: The first operation should be finished before the second starts.
There are 10 steamers between Bombay and madras. In how many ways can a man go from bombay to madras if he returns by different steamers?
10 * 9 ways
For Selection problems always use Combination
From a bag containing 4 white and 5 black balls a man draws three at random what is the probability of these being all black.
5C3 / 9C3
Cube Problem:
Find the chance of throwing more than 15 in one throw with 3 dice.
18: 6 6 6
17: 6 6 5
17: 6 5 6
17: 5 6 6
16: 6 5 5
16: 5 6 5
16: 5 5 6
16: 4 6 6
16: 6 6 4
16: 6 4 6
Fav = 10
Total = 6*6*6
10 / 6*6*6 (Ans)
Set Theory
Union:
A= {1,2} B= {3,4} A u B = {1,2,3,4}
Intersection
A= {1,2} B= {2,4,5} A n B = {2}
n(A u B) = n(A) + n(B) n(A n B)
A B is defined as elements belonged to A but not in B
n(A u B u C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) n(A n B) n(A n C) n(B n C)
+ n(A n B n C)
In a certain production lot 40% of the toys are red and remaining toys are green. Half of the toys are small and half are large. If 10% of the red toys are small, 40 toys are green and large. How many of the toys are red and large?
Large Small Total
Red 30 10 40
Green 20 40 60
Total 50 50 100
Given is 40 toys are green and large
20% of total toys = 40
20 * n / 100 = 40 n = 200
How many toys are red and large?
30 % of 200 = 60
Geometry
A
a
P Q
B C D
R
General Triangles
Every triangle has atleast two acute angles
AB + AC > BC
If BC > AB then angle A > angle C
A + B + C = 180
Angle ACD = A + B
Area = B*H / 2
Isosceles Triangles
B = C
AB = AC
The angular bisector of angle A is perpendicular to BC and bisects it.
Equilateral Triangle
A = B = C = 60
The bisector of every angle is perpendicular to opposite side and bisects it.
The point of intersection of all the 3 bisectors is center of the triangle and is called centroid.
PQ = 1 / 2 BC
Triangles APQ = BQR = QCR = PQR
Area = Root 3 a^2 / 4
Quadrilaterals
TypeAreaPerimeterProperty if anySquarea^24aDiagonal = Root 2 a
Diagonals bisectRectangleA * B2(A + B)Diagonals bisectParallelogramB * H2(A + B)Opp sides and Opp angles are equal
Opp sides are parallelTrapezium(B1+B2)*H/2Opp sides are parallel but not equal.Rhombus(d1*d2)/2
Diagonal4aDiagonals bisect and intersect at 90 degrees.All angles are equal
All sides are equal
Q
B C
P
R
A S D
In the above quadrilateral:
AC + BD < AB + BC + CD + AD
PQ  to AC and  to SR
PQ = AC / 2
Polygon
The sum of interior angle of a polygon having n sides = (n2) * 180
Circles
Arc Length = (q / 360) 2 tt r
Area of sector = (q / 360) tt r^2
Equal chords are equidistant from the center.
Standard Deviation:
One of the most common measures of dispersion i.e. the degree to which numerical data are spread out or dispersed.
The greater the data are spread away from the mean, greater the SD.
The SD of n numbers can be calculated as follows:
Find the AM.
Find the difference between the mean and each of the n numbers.
Square each of the differences.
Find the average of the squared differences.
Take the non negative square root of this average.
Example1: For data 0, 7, 8, 10, 10
X x7 (x7)^2
0 7 49
7 0 0
8 1 1
10 3 9
10 3 9
68
SD = Square Root (68 / 5)
SD = 3.7
Mode = 10
SD depends on every data value, although it depends most on values that are farthest from the mean.
Example if you have 6, 6, 6.5, 7.5, 9 the mean is 7. But the SD is 1.1. So if the values are nearer to the mean the SD is less.
Example2: 20 numbers are given
4, 0, 0, 3, 2, 1, 1, 0, 1, 4, 1, 5, 0, 2., 0, 5, 2, 0, 0, 1
Data Value Frequency
5 2
4 2
3 1
2 3
1 5
7
20
Mean = (5)(2) + (4)(2) + (3)(1) + (2)(3) + (1)(5) + 0(7) / 20 = 1.6
Median
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 5
Median = Average of 10th and 11th = (1) + (1) / 2 = 1
Mode = Highest repetitions. Mode = 0.
Range = 0(5) = 5
Min Max
SD = Square Root ((xmean)*Frequency + / n)
SD = Square Root [ (5 (1.6))^2 * 2 + (4 (1.6))^2 * 2 + / 20] = 1.7
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