Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe the universe in terms of four universal forces. Experiments then

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Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe the universe in terms of four universal forces. Experiments then suggested, however, a fifth universal force of mutual repulsion between particles of matter. This fifth force would explain the occurrence in the experiments of a smaller measurement of the gravitational attraction between bodies than the established theory predicted.

Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument that there is a fifth universal force?

A) The extremely sophisticated equipment used for the experiments was not available to physicists before the 1970’s.
B) No previously established scientific results are incompatible with the notion of a fifth universal force.
C) Some scientists have suggested that the alleged fifth universal force is an aspect of gravity rather than being fundamental in itself.
D) The experiments were conducted by physicists in remote geological settings in which factors affecting the force of gravity could not be measured with any degree of precision.
E) The fifth universal force was postulated at a time during which many other exciting and productive ideas in theoretical physics were developed.


OA B

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This argument explains that before physicists could believe they could describe the universe in 4 dimensions but after series of experiments, it was discovered that there was a fifth force that could perform better. The conclusion is that there's a fifth force in the universe.

Option A - incorrect
This is not in line with what is being discussed. The choice talks about what happened in 1970 instead of focusing on what happened in 1986.

Option B - correct
This statement directly explains that the previous theories and experimental results show no incompatibility with the existence of the fifth force. This implies that the forces existed during previous experiments and hence strengthens the conclusion.

Option C - incorrect
This statement weakens the argument, it claims that the fifth force is just an aspect of one of the four forces. This doesn't support the conclusion.

Option D - incorrect
This statement weakens the argument by saying that the experiments carried out by the physicists were not conducted properly.

Option E - incorrect
Although it talks about the potential development of the fifth force which was during the time when a lot of ideas were coming up. It does specifically strengthens the argument that the fifth force is realistic.