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Register now and save up to $200 Available with Beat the GMAT members only code • 1 Hour Free BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE Available with Beat the GMAT members only code • Get 300+ Practice Questions 25 Video lessons and 6 Webinars for FREE Available with Beat the GMAT members only code • Free Trial & Practice Exam BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE Available with Beat the GMAT members only code • 5-Day Free Trial 5-day free, full-access trial TTP Quant Available with Beat the GMAT members only code • 5 Day FREE Trial Study Smarter, Not Harder Available with Beat the GMAT members only code ## SC: "Most of Portugal's..." This topic has 4 expert replies and 4 member replies me_1234 Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 30 Nov 2014 Posted: 78 messages Followed by: 2 members Thanked: 1 times #### SC: "Most of Portugal's..." Tue Dec 16, 2014 7:18 pm Elapsed Time: 00:00 • Lap #[LAPCOUNT] ([LAPTIME]) Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to protest a law that requires them to contribute$330 a year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying $7 per year. a/ year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying$7 per year

b/ year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid $7 per year c/ year, compared to the previously$7 per year, toward the cost of higher education

d/ year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the $7 per year required previously e/ year as opposed to the$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education

I'm not totally clear why D is the right answer?

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Marty Murray Legendary Member
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Tue Dec 16, 2014 10:10 pm
melanie.espeland wrote:
Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to protest a law that requires them to contribute $330 a year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying$7 per year.

a/ year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying $7 per year b/ year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid$7 per year

c/ year, compared to the previously $7 per year, toward the cost of higher education d/ year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the$7 per year required previously

e/ year as opposed to the $7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education Answer: D I'm not totally clear why D is the right answer? A) previously paying is not logically well connected to the rest of the sentence, and to the degree it is connected previously paying seems to be modifying education rather than whomever was paying. Eliminate. B) If we look closely at the for which was previously paid, we realize that it's not clear who was paying the$7. Was it the students? One might assume that, but it's not clear. Eliminate.

The second part of the sentence compares $7 to$330, but MUST also parallel the first part (so the second phrase also must mention what the $7 was for). Eliminate A and B. The phrase "required previously" provides enough context to compare the current contribution to the past contribution. Final Answer: D GMAT assassins aren't born, they're made, Rich _________________ Contact Rich at Rich.C@empowergmat.com Thanked by: NandishSS ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMATGuruNY GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 13505 messages Followed by: 1792 members Thanked: 12997 times GMAT Score: 790 Wed Dec 17, 2014 4:20 am Quote: Most of Portugalâ€™s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to protest a law that requires them to contribute$330 a year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying $7 per year. A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying$7 per year
B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid $7 per year C. year, compared to the previously$7 per year, toward the cost of higher education
D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the $7 per year required previously E. year as opposed to the$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher
education
Generally, a COMMA + VERBing modifier serves to express CONTEMPORANEOUS action: an action attributed to the preceding subject and happening AT THE SAME TIME as -- and often as a result of -- the preceding action.
Thus, A implies the following:
When the students contribute $330 a year, they are AT THE SAME TIME previously paying$7 per year.
Not the intended meaning.

B states that students must contribute $330 a year toward their education, for which was previously paid$7 per year.
Here, it's unclear WHO previously paid $7 per year. Also, a reader might construe that BOTH amounts are being applied to a student's education (the$330 a year AND the $7 previously paid). To make it clear that one amount ($330 a year) is serving to REPLACE the previous amount ($7 per year), a word of contrast is needed (such as instead or whereas). Eliminate B. In C, previously (adverb) cannot serve to modify the$7 per year (noun phrase).
Eliminate C.

E: a law that requires them to contribute $330 a year as opposed to... Here, it is unclear WHY the law requires students to contribute$330 a year.
Eliminate E.

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me_1234 Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
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Wed Dec 17, 2014 1:19 pm
Thank you all!

akara2500 Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts
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Sat Sep 09, 2017 8:04 am
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Quote:
Most of Portugalâ€™s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to protest a law that requires them to contribute $330 a year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying$7 per year.

A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying $7 per year B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid$7 per
year
C. year, compared to the previously $7 per year, toward the cost of higher education D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the$7 per year required
previously
E. year as opposed to the $7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education Generally, a COMMA + VERBing modifier serves to express CONTEMPORANEOUS action: an action attributed to the preceding subject and happening AT THE SAME TIME as -- and often as a result of -- the preceding action. Thus, A implies the following: When the students contribute$330 a year, they are AT THE SAME TIME previously paying $7 per year. Not the intended meaning. B states that students must contribute$330 a year toward their education, for which was previously paid $7 per year. Here, it's unclear WHO previously paid$7 per year.
Also, a reader might construe that BOTH amounts are being applied to a student's education (the $330 a year AND the$7 previously paid).
To make it clear that one amount ($330 a year) is serving to REPLACE the previous amount ($7 per year), a word of contrast is needed (such as instead or whereas).
Eliminate B.

In C, previously (adverb) cannot serve to modify the $7 per year (noun phrase). Eliminate C. E: a law that requires them to contribute$330 a year as opposed to...
Here, it is unclear WHY the law requires students to contribute $330 a year. Eliminate E. The correct answer is D. Hi Mitch, sorry for coming up this thread again. However in OA D, do we have ambiguous in the word "required", as it is in passive voice so who required previously? sana.noor Legendary Member Joined 18 Jun 2012 Posted: 512 messages Followed by: 19 members Thanked: 42 times Test Date: October '13 Target GMAT Score: 740 Thu Nov 02, 2017 7:29 am Mitch i need some further help regarding this question In option C is "compared" right? usually comma + ed-modifiers modifies the noun it follows In option A isnt comma +previously wrong because it should modify the effect of the action mentioned in previous clause where as it is modifying students that are not the main subject here. GMATGuruNY wrote: Quote: Most of Portugalâ€™s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to protest a law that requires them to contribute$330 a year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying $7 per year. A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying$7 per year
B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid $7 per year C. year, compared to the previously$7 per year, toward the cost of higher education
D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the $7 per year required previously E. year as opposed to the$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher
education
Generally, a COMMA + VERBing modifier serves to express CONTEMPORANEOUS action: an action attributed to the preceding subject and happening AT THE SAME TIME as -- and often as a result of -- the preceding action.
Thus, A implies the following:
When the students contribute $330 a year, they are AT THE SAME TIME previously paying$7 per year.
Not the intended meaning.

B states that students must contribute $330 a year toward their education, for which was previously paid$7 per year.
Here, it's unclear WHO previously paid $7 per year. Also, a reader might construe that BOTH amounts are being applied to a student's education (the$330 a year AND the $7 previously paid). To make it clear that one amount ($330 a year) is serving to REPLACE the previous amount ($7 per year), a word of contrast is needed (such as instead or whereas). Eliminate B. In C, previously (adverb) cannot serve to modify the$7 per year (noun phrase).
Eliminate C.

E: a law that requires them to contribute $330 a year as opposed to... Here, it is unclear WHY the law requires students to contribute$330 a year.
Eliminate E.

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Fri Nov 03, 2017 3:38 am
akara2500 wrote:
Hi Mitch, sorry for coming up this thread again. However in OA D, do we have ambiguous in the word "required", as it is in passive voice so who required previously?
This line of reasoning is faulty.
A past participle (VERBed) can serve as an adjective.
In the OA, required is an adjective serving to modify $7 per year. The agent of VERBed modifier does not need to be identified. That said, the OA makes the agent of required crystal clear: Since it is stated that a LAW REQUIRES students now to contribute$330 a year, the implication is that the previous fee -- $7 per year -- was also required BY LAW. _________________ Mitch Hunt GMAT Private Tutor GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "Thank" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now. ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMATGuruNY GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 13505 messages Followed by: 1792 members Thanked: 12997 times GMAT Score: 790 Fri Nov 03, 2017 4:20 am sana.noor wrote: Mitch i need some further help regarding this question In option C is "compared" right? usually comma + ed-modifiers modifies the noun it follows On the GMAT, it is VERY common for an SC to include COMMA + COMPARISON PHRASE. The purpose of the comparison phrase will be to EXPLAIN or DEFINE a preceding data point. Official examples: Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, a greater proportion than in any previous election. Only seven people this century have been killed by the great white shark, fewer than have been killed by bee stings. More than 43 percent of Californians under the age of eighteen are Hispanic, compared with about 35 percent a decade ago. In each of the OAs above, the comparison phrase in red serves to explain the preceding data point in blue. These comparison phrases can take on many forms. How they are classified is unimportant. What matters is how they all function: Each serves to explain a preceding data point. As long as it is clear what data points are being compared, consider the answer choice correct. C:$330 a year, compared to...$7 a year In C, it seems clear that the phrase in red serves to explain the preceding data point in blue. Quote: In option A isnt comma +previously wrong because it should modify the effect of the action mentioned in previous clause where as it is modifying students that are not the main subject here. COMMA + VERBing serves to express an action that is a COMPONENT OF or a RESULT OF the nearest preceding action. Generally, this type of modifier will refer not only to the nearest preceding action but also to the agent of this action. A: students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to protest a law that requires them to contribute$330 a year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying $7 per year Here, the COMMA + VERBing modifier in red seems to refer to the preceding action in blue and to the agent of this action (students). It is logical for previously paying to refer to students, since the STUDENTS were previously PAYING$7 per year.
But C can be eliminated for the following reason:
The act of previously paying $7 per year is NOT a component of or a result of the preceding action in blue (to contribute$330 a year).

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