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Pheromones

This topic has 8 member replies
zagcollins Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Default Avatar
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Pheromones

Post Tue Jul 22, 2008 8:05 am
Elapsed Time: 00:00
  • Lap #[LAPCOUNT] ([LAPTIME])
    There is no consensus among
    researchers regarding what qualifies a
    substance as a pheromone. While most
    agree on a basic definition of pheromones
    (5) as chemicals released by one individual
    of a species which, when detected by
    another individual of the same species,
    elicit a specific behavioral or physiological
    response, some researchers also specify
    (10) that the response to pheromones must be
    unconscious. In addition, the distinction
    between pheromones and odorants-
    chemicals that are consciously detected
    as odors---can be blurry, and some
    (15) researchers classify pheromones as a
    type of odorant. Evidence that pheromone
    responses may not involve conscious odor
    perception comes from the finding that in
    many species, pheromones are processed
    (20) by the vomeronasal (or accessory olfactory)
    system, which uses a special structure in
    the nose, the vomeronasal organ (VNO),
    to receive chemical signals. The neural
    connections between the VNO and the
    (25) brain are separate from those of the main
    olfactory system, whose processing of
    odorants triggers sensations of smell. But
    while the VNO does process many animal
    pheromone signals, not all animal phero-
    (30) mones work through the VNO. Conversely,
    not all chemical signals transmitted via the
    VNO quality as pheromones. For example,
    garter snakes detect a chemical signal from
    earthworms-one of their favorite foods-via
    (35) the VNO, and they use this signal to track
    their prey.

    Q1.It can be inferred from the passage thatin classifying pheromones as a type of odorant, the researchers referred to in line 15 posit that

    A. pheromones are perceived consciously
    B. most pheromones are processed by the VNO
    C. most chemical signals processed by the VNO are pheromones
    D. Pheromone perception does not occur exclusively between members of the same species.
    E. pheromones do not always elicit a specific behavioral or physiological response

    Q2. According to the passage, the fact that pheromones are processed by the VNO in many animal species has been taken as evidence of which of the following?
    A. The accessory and main olfactory systems are not separate
    B. Odorants and pheromones are not distinct types of chemicals.
    C. Odorants and pheromones both elicit a specific behavioral response.
    D. Pheromones do not trigger conscious sensations of smell.
    E. Pheromones aid animals in tracking prey.

    Q3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

    A. compare and contrast the ways in which the vomeronasal organ
    and the main olfactory systern process chemicals.
    B. summarize the debate over the role the vomeronasal organ plays in odor perception
    C. present some of the issues involved in the debate over what constitutes a pheromone
    D. propose a new definition of pheromones based on recent research
    E. argue that pheromones should be classified as a type of odorant

    Thanked by: baronbaik
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    Post Tue Jul 22, 2008 9:12 am
    A
    D
    C

    zagcollins Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Default Avatar
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    Post Thu Jul 24, 2008 10:52 pm
    OA is ADE

    Melba20 Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts Default Avatar
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    Post Tue Jul 19, 2011 9:38 pm
    Pheromone cologne is like an amplified version of the regular Cologne. He provided the ingredients of male pheromone that inhibits the attraction of quality, charm and sensuality that men are women around them. The use of pheromones have become very popular for men in those days. Some of the best examples of pheromone cologne include Pheros, Realm, Chikara, and Corporativo Alfa Maschio for men.

    pheromones

    finance Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Default Avatar
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    Post Wed Jul 20, 2011 5:43 am
    zagcollins wrote:
    OA is ADE
    Can someone please explain? AT least for the third question I was sure that it should be C.

    Ozlemg Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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    Post Tue Jul 26, 2011 2:08 am
    3rd question. my answer was C, too. Where do we get that the author argues? Most of the passage, IMO, he is "presents" rather than "argues".

    Could someone elaborate 2.nd Q,too?

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    killer1387 Legendary Member Default Avatar
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    Post Thu Aug 18, 2011 6:33 am
    ADC

    bblast Legendary Member
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    Post Wed Aug 24, 2011 7:09 am
    Ozlemg wrote:
    3rd question. my answer was C, too. Where do we get that the author argues? Most of the passage, IMO, he is "presents" rather than "argues".

    Could someone elaborate 2.nd Q,too?
    Hi, The answer posted here is incorrect, answer to 3rd question is indeed C. this is from prep-1

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    Anaira Mitch Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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    Post Tue Jul 04, 2017 7:07 am
    1)"in classifying pheromones as a type of odorant, ..."
    "In addition, the distinction between pheromones and odorants- chemicals that are consciously detected
    as odors---can be blurry, and some researchers classify pheromones as a type of odorant".
    "This means you have to say what they're implying by referring to pheromones as "odorants". any other fact about pheromones is irrelevant".
    The passage only tells you one thing about "odorants": they're consciously perceived as odors. so, you need to pick the choice that corresponds to that idea.
    2)this is a type of question wherein we don't need to attack each choice. All you have to do is know what you learned from the passage before you go dive into the choices. We know that the VNO is an evidence against the claim that pheromones are odorant by showing that this system is separate from the system used for the sensation of smell. With this in mind, then go to look for that in the choices.
    A is wrong. This is about proving or disproving something about pheromones.
    B is wrong. VNO proves that they are distinct from each other.
    C is wrong. VNO evidence is not about response or eliciting behavior, it's about the sensation of smell using a different organ.
    D is the answer. It is obvious. bingo!
    E is a trap. The VNO used to track prey refers to a non-pheromone. Read last sentence.
    3)by the way-the best way to get to the point quickly is to imagine a conversation in which someone is presenting the same information. (it helps to be a nerd, since nerds tend to talk about random stuff like what's in the passages.)
    here's the first sentence:
    "There is no consensus among researchers regarding what qualifies a substance as a pheromone."
    in other words... People don't agree on what 'pheromone' means.
    if someone said this, what would come next?
    you know what would come next-there would be at least some discussion about the different ways in which people try to define this word. Hence C.

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